Final Exam Study Guide. Part 2
Final Exam Study Guide. Part 2
1. Mechanics
1. Mechanics
1). Basic units of
the System International (SI)
the System International (SI)
•
Time
 the standard unit of time is the
 the standard unit of time is the
second
second
(s)
(s)
1 minute
= 60 s , 1hour = 60 min = 3600 s
1 minute
= 60 s , 1hour = 60 min = 3600 s
•
Distance
Distance
 the standard unit of distance is the
 the standard unit of distance is the
meter (m)
meter (m)
•
Mass
– the standard unit of mass is the
kilogram
(kg)
2). What is a vector quantity?
Examples: velocity, force, acceleration
3). The Newton’s First Law
4). The Newton’s Second Law
Newton’s Second Law can be expressed in a very compact way:
F = m•a
5). What is a free fall acceleration, and how the weight of an object is related to its mass.
6). The Newton’s Third Law
7)
Net force is
a vector sum
of all forces that are exerted upon an object
8)
Forma of
Mechanical Energy:
Kinetic
Energy (KE) and Potential Energy (PE)
Kinetic Energy
= ½ mass
×
(speed)
2
2
1
2
K E
m v
=
Potential energy (PE) is the energy that arises because of an object’s position.
Example: Gravitational potential energy = weight
×
height
or
PE=mgh
.
9)
Total Mechanical Energy = KE + PE
10
) Theorem of Conservation of Mechanical Energy:
In the absence of external forces, the total mechanical energy of a system is conserved.
2.
Gravity and projectiles
1
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The Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
2)
A projectile is a body that moves under the influence of gravity
2. Electricity
Electrical charge
is one of the basic properties of matter. Electric charge is of a quantum
nature, and
there is an elementary charge that
is denoted as
“e”
An electron carries negative elementary charge (e) and a proton carries a positive
elementary charge (+e).
Rule 1: Like charges repel
Rule 2: Unlike charges attract each other.
The SI unit of charge is 1 coulomb (C).
The Coulomb Law
The force exerted by one charge onto another is determined by Coulomb Law.
:
1
2
2
1
2
q q
F
d
w here
q
and
q
denot e
t he
c h arg es ( m easured in c oulom b ),
and d
is
t he
separat ion
dis t an c e
( m easured in m et ers ) bet w een
t hese
c h arg es
Coulomb Law shows
the inversesquare dependence (or inverse square law)
over the distance
.
3. Magnetism
•
All magnets have two poles:
the North Pole and a south pole.
•
Magnets produce a magnetic force field.
•
Like poles repel each other; opposite poles attract each other.
•
Magnetic poles always exist in pairs.
2
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 Fall '08
 Khankasayev
 Atom, Proton, Energy, Nuclear Fission, Fundamental physics concepts

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