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# test2 study - Study guide for Test 2: Chapters 11 and 12 I....

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1 Study guide for Test 2: Chapters 11 and 12 I. ELECTRICITY (CHAPTER 11) ELECTRIC CHARGE 1. The electric charge is one of the basic characteristics of matter. There are positive and negative charges! 2. The SI unit of charge is 1 coulomb (C). 3. Electrical charge is of a quantum nature , i.e. there is an elementary charge. The carriers of elementary charge are elementary particles such as an electron and proton. An electron carries a negative elementary charge and a proton – a positive elementary charge. 4. The value of an elementary charge (e) e = 1.6 × 10 -19 C How many electrons make charge of a 1-coulomb charge? Answer: number electrons that make a 1-C charge is 1C/ 1e =(1 C)/(1.6 × 10 -19 )= 6.25 × 10 18 electrons, i. .e. 6.25 billion billions. 5. All charges are multiples of the elementary charge. The charge can be positive or negative. 6. Electric forces can be attractive and repulsive! Rule 1: Like charges repel Rule 2: Unlike charges attract each other. 7. Coulomb Law states that electrical force between two charges depends both on the magnitude of charges and the separation distance between them. = 12 2 2 9 2 91 0 qq Force k d where q and q denote the charg es (measured in coulomb), and d is the separation distance (measured in meters) between these charg es Nm k C Coulomb Law clearly shows the inverse-square law over the distance:

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2 The force between two electrically charged particles is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. 8. Law of Charge Conservation states that: The net charge ( that is the sum of all positive and negative charges ) in any isolated system of charged objects is conserved. No case of the creation or destruction of net charge has ever been found ! 9. Atoms and molecules – the basic elements of matter are formed by electric forces. 10. All neutral objects have a zero net charge, i.e. contain equal number of protons and electrons. ELECTRIC CURRENT 1. Definition: Electric current is the flow of electric charge. 2. Usually, the current is caused by the flow of electrons (called as conduction electrons.) 3. The SI unit of current is 1 ampere (A).
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## This note was uploaded on 05/27/2011 for the course PSC 1121 taught by Professor Khankasayev during the Fall '08 term at Florida A&M.

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test2 study - Study guide for Test 2: Chapters 11 and 12 I....

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