Scopes&MethodsNotes

Scopes&MethodsNotes - POS 4703, Cope & Methods...

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SOP Significant observable political Characteristics of Science and Scientific Knowledge: 1) Empirical Basis: of thought, data, and analysis a. Investigative thought; search for patterns within observations 2) Must be falsifiable a. Ability to contradict or confirm information based on research and superior knowledge/information 3) Non-Normative – FACTS as distinct from values a. No basis in subjectivity or value judgments – not what should be but what is 4) Cumulative – a. Historical accumulation, research, and conclusions 5) Predictive a. Based on past research/ limited because human behavior is not predictable 6) Explanatory a. How’s Why’s What’s 7) Has Parsimony – a. Simple alternative explanations based on few parameters THE CONS – Arguments Against Political “Science” 1) Normative a. No control over variables of human behavior b. Cannot be manipulated or controlled 2) Abstract Values a. What is peace? What is war? b. Representation of human experience c. “halo effect” d. Conventions / social change 3) Practicality of methods a. No real empirical research because of human experience Concepts of 1) Theory 2) Deductive Reasoning or Deduction a. Presentation of proof b. If all men are mortal, and Socrates is a man, THEN Socrates is mortal 3) Inductive reasoning or induction a. In a sample of 50, 25% are women, and 25% had B We can infer that ALL women have B
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Proposing explanations for your research question Concepts and variables implicated in topic Government policy on Reform as it relates to health policy Civil rights Gay rights Women rights … all as related to state/federal law Variable A. Independent B. Dependent C. Antecedent varaiable 1. Prior to existence of independent variable i.e. factors that affect performance or definitions confining circumstances // environment UNEMPLOYMENT and CRIME in URBAN HOUSING PROJECTS Unemployment = independent CRIME = Dependent Anttecedent = economy
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09.17.09 Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis: 1) Should be worded as an empirical statement; not a statement of what a researcher wants to be true 2) Explain general phenomenon [related to research problem] flexcible… 3) Must be plausible – logical, and possible – to confirm or verifiy with existing data 4) State direction of relationship between two or more phenomena – either positive or negative relationship 5) Must be testable – see #3
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CHAPTER 4: BUILDING BLOCK II: Introducing Measurement 1) What is measurement or what is a measure 2) Operational Definition of concepts in a research 3) 2 Types of measures: a. Reliability i. Extent experiment or test yields same result upon repearted
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Scopes&MethodsNotes - POS 4703, Cope & Methods...

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