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intro - ‘'A mmmh's’alimEm-fHE urLiwa'fis Brief...

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Unformatted text preview: ‘ - ' 'A mmmh's’alimEm-fHE urLiwa'fis Brief Contents \ ‘ Part1 andaniums : Ch 0A5) i'nuudumiunw Amyomy ‘ Ch 1 mCopcmxumRevoiufion 1 cm Lightumf Matte-t Ch 3 Tammi-m E Perl 2 Our Pinem'y sysmm Ch 4 ":13: SoIAxSyslcm C?) S Emthnmi “3an Che mecsmallenu Ch 7 Th: Iowan Plane“ Ch 3 Moms, Rings. ami’lalaid: Part3 The Sins Ch 9 'flu: Sun c1. EDMmmmgthe Slam Ch I} Th: hflu‘fldiamed‘tum g Ch IlSmllarEvuluzion E Ch BNeannSEuIsand Elnckiialcs ‘ . L7,”... firfiiiikfiwmg Part 4 Galaxtes and she Universe c1. 14 Tthilky Way Gaauy Ch ES Nnamai méAcziveGsdnxies Ch Eb‘Galmamnd DukM-‘mer c1. ETCuamuiogy Ch ERLifeineheUniverse Ch 0 - Chiming the Heavens Learning Goals 1. The “Obvious" View. C01: stcilalions Cciesmd sphere. Celestial Cmrdinnlcs, 2. Earth’s Grbxtal Manon. Rotation ~- Revoiution 7 Preccssion. Apparent motions of fire Sun and the stars. Thc seasons, - 3. The Motion offhe Mean and mlipses. ; 4. The Mcasurcmcn! nfDislance. How to measure the distances and sizes of very faraway objects. TrianguJation —A.ngular measure — Pmallax. 5. Scientific Method 0"} flue—ZZBEGOUS” View Universe Gaiaxies ' Globular Clusters Open Clusters ebulae : Stars Astronamy Light year : Scientific Notatiorz ~Puwers :1me § .«amu .. ..Char£cs Mess-ct ~ Barred Spiral Hydra , Ms‘ Messier objects ‘ Measkrnbjuckan: u M MW 5 ' crib.» fime m «mum-gm Nébulcum dexAmakd‘EEoikcs" ("Cunloguml' Nebuiacmd swam-3 (puhlsxhodm 1771}. Mewerwm am hunter. and was [mu-aim ohjems which rescm bscdhui were not uumcls He Mel’nrmumpflndn mg; 'm mummy» mm hianssismnlmmbfim 1115 fusledihmlcovcfcdfls ubjwbuumbcmim mm The mm: lixl publishcdby Mcssmfmliywnuhwd L03 (meals Ozhc-ruhjcwmre sddodlalerby mm BSU'DHHIEIEES, The Last ($3qu I H!) was uddadm1956. “ Frnm W\kipedia, the free encyclopedia 5/23/2011 . Constclilrflfiwflns Tabla uflmagcs nf all Messier Objects Ccicstial sphere Artist’s concept'nn cfa nearly edge-on View of the Mfiky Way Globular :IusmrNGC 6397 w Hubblc View. |—, Can you estimate the exposure time? Norlh celestial polc‘ Saudi mlflstial pulemu Ctlmial equator 5/23/2011 Latitude ané Longiwde on Earth's surface Celestial analogs um dc gm! longitude Declination Right Ascension §O.2 Earth 5 Orbital Motion éDay-le-day Changes We have rcwrds of obscrvmjuns from mlny 1 ancicnxcnlmrcs. iTn observe flue sky was csscntigl to survive 3(tu navigate, m hum, for agriculture, ‘Suiar day 'dereal day Why the differmce? Sular day vs‘ Sidcrcai day eastanal Change; 1The ecliptic 5/23/2011 um nut-51m pm Sursmcr soistice Wénter soistice lAutumnai equinox “Verna! or Spring equinox Mpical year isidarcul year I Why the difference? PWCCSiiun Emh'sgn‘; A' n! mmlm .1- :xmchzl surm- Sun-war 9‘st Typical summer sky above lhc Uniicd Smes Typical win an sky abov: um United States Canstcilal‘mns of “nudist 5/23/2011 5/23/2011 Eclipses. From time In timer—but only alncw or [1:11 W i Lhc Sun, Earth, and the M00" fine up precisaiy and we observe an eciipsc ‘ New Moon ..... lSI Qumr Moon. ‘ Lunar eclipse iFuiJ Moon ..... Jr‘Quamar Muon,,,., Waxing.“ Gibbons“... Waning .... Waxing i Gibbons | i i Waning Tomi lunar eclipse :Thamddis}: wk)!" of the Moon 5 Sidereai monm z i The thrce types 01' inns: eclipses § , ESynudic mom}: 1 > ‘ wmwx :. w aim ‘ w t 3 um .m; - Why the difference? pm Luna: gum:- WW.WW w- .Viikwflmm 1:2sz Vanuatu-r mew - “my 5/23/2011 :Sular eclipses Annular solar calipsc. Taml solar culipse The corona "Fania: soiar eclipse Because we know flue urbiLs ofhulh Earth and the Moon Lo great accuracy, we can predict ecéépses far imo the fuhue iTriangnlaliun Basciinc P arafinx Measuring Distances with Gecmet um-mmnmmzmmlwwwgumm . Finding a SW5 distance {mm its parallax, Evtry six monfiis me Farlh moves nearly 186 émfiiion chs 0&1: 3a The other T’his is enough to give us siighlly LEtffcrenl iines of sight to a nearby smr seen against distant stars m the far backgrourd The 'pnrallax shift" is cxrrcmely tiny -- lass {him an lamsmomi -- but U1: European sataliile i Hipparcos has measured i! wiTh sman-dmm i precision for em: miiiion stars. | Angie in ;;dians : ‘ '-;Dtsgamjg :Obsewer Anguiar diameter 10:319‘35; Wmdéé {known} (m: m”). .11 'fifififlSfiKfilfiwlw 1 Afull cimie contain; 35123112? degrees (urjus: 360“) I _ r35}, :Thus, 1nd:___ " 5“ can he snbdivsdcd into 60 are minuL-s (50‘) a Bath Lbs Sun ané the Moon project an {Egglgsqu’gffifl an minutes on thgsky. 5/23/2011 Your iiule finger, held 31 arm's length, cuvsrs n angle of about 40 an: mimics (40’). iAn am mmuu: U 6!) 3:: seconds (50"). Elm a time period of 1 how, the Bani) relates through Jaw/24 a m ()1 1h R A, i171 E minuic, Em}: mmmmugh in RA iln i secondly-:31 retains through 15 RA Ex ample Twp nhscrvzrs WOO inn span lookixg 3mm Mum: nughl measure (using the photographic becilmque desczibed in the text) a a 9.0 are minutes. Dismnce Ln the Moon 3 m (More accuraig measmfinents, based DH laser ranging using cquipmcnl chl on Lhc lunar Lsurfam: by Apollo asuomuis,y1cld a mum dis: Knowmg Lhcdisiance: to an subject. we can {hen dewmiiic many miner properties f For example, by measuring the object‘s : angulardiamelc: we can compute its size. ‘ . § 301mm er Angular diametei ‘GDEQCIE M" islanga' (mom) § ExampleLThc Moon’s angular dinmclcr is measured to be abourll arc minutes. From the precedingdiscussion, we can cstimale the diameter othc Moon. ,Diamewr = d = The acgfpled An example of {he use of the scientific method: Aristotle’s study ofiunar eclipses lme 1hr: shape uf [he 3 shadow he concludes that .3 [he Earth is mimd. DiscuveryD-‘I Sizlng Up Planet Earth (Elatosthenes ~253 as) 5/23/2011 ...
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