ch 2 - a ff: An integratiire Approach to Psychopathology '...

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Unformatted text preview: a ff: An integratiire Approach to Psychopathology ' é: One-DirfienaeionelMed-93:5 I I i I a I ' Singie 03338;,Idberatigng iflii'SfOlatifghgflf Z as Linear causgail' . .3 .. . . : ' Ignores critical'inforffiafionxg {ET-j" MultidimensionelModefs " “Systemic; . .. g - SeVef‘a‘l independent inputs that heed-me, ' interdependent ' - - - - ' : '-- Causes cannot be co.n3idfere.d b-uf'oif: ' con-text I " g i I Biolqgi-cal Factcrs (3) I Physiology - Neurobioiogy , Rejected by Behavioral Factors-i' ' i __p;§n-c§pal : Emotional Influences Baahavigora' Fedors? . i - = ' Emotional Infln‘ences? _ Soc:_al-Fa;cto-rs_ -' -- _ Sociaypacgors? fiDevei Opmengtai ' {ii 3 Devel'oipmgntaii Factdrs?:E : _§----Factors . I. I _ __ . ._ . All of these interact interdeg end-entw- n'e§. .. ,. WW WW5“ . _f.'What are geneS? _ ' 1* Long moieculyesié'pf _ __ Double Helix:$tirficture' “if I Located on chrozmp'somés I 46 chroimoSoréjaés in23i'pairs-_ __ __ _. .. - Pairs 1-2_‘.—-:-2;2_;.=="b:ody andbraianeVé'lopmengt' ' . -Pa-ir23:é..g5endéf ' " ' ' i ' ' 56mm: m ' The gene: A gene is a sequence (a String) of bases. It is matte- up of combinations of A, T, C, and G."_These unique combinations .. - determine the gene's fuhction; much as letters join together to form wordsi Each person-has th'Q'USands of genes —- bittions of- base pairs of DNA or bits of information repeated in the nuclei of human Ceiis “which determine individual- characteristics (genetic traits). How do gflefles exert their influence? -- Determine physicai _cha-racteristics ai-(i-tegii-weight)‘ 212i " Importance of ' _- ConteXtuai factors Domifiant vs. I recessive genes Ii Singieflene determinants - Pqisygenetic influences : - Rule, not the exce'flonf i -__ Eric Kan-dele learning affects genetic structure “ifofcelis ' . '. 'I dormant genes devéiopment in the: bfa-in 3: _-5'_f'i?-:ies'tici’éy vs._.__ hardwired ' {Eric Kandel app-liedi'his"findings from the _ : seaslug. to the compiexity of our limbic system, _ ' our subsirate fer [ea-med fear. - I S ’ ‘mis image is of 23-yeamid identical twins. one with mophwnia and the diner welL I! therefor: cieaflyilimwux two minus: [1} muopmvma is in brain diam whk lfiherited'tendency to ._ _ . express traits/behaviors-‘Q SCH‘ZQHRENA 1N ID“? IN I iGenetic - ' ' Stress: _ 5j_ Life eVehts or contextuéai - variables I Environmental! CombinE-ng both yields MR1 scam onSHyear 0 12h: identicai twins shoWii‘eg fihe emerged wel'i Nether (left). n u g brain uerfir‘sdes in the twin will! sahizophrenia (right) compared in his Conditions - The Dia-t-hesis~$igfg§s Model People who drink more than saven'cups of - i - COfiee-a day are three times more liker to 3- {experience hallucinations compared with - .I-p'e'ople who drink just one cup Stressor: Life wants long bouts of (alra'sacér) Ave—drinking in mun)- college Genetic vulnerabih‘ty Diaehasis.‘ & wwwotm. aw 'HSYXE'SG Might - _ Reciprbcal Gene-Environment Model. _ - Genes shape how we createrour-environments 3 5 ° inherited predispositian of traits that increase: one’s likelihood? to engage ihéctiv’i-ties or Seek'oiut _ situations : . _ - Ex. lntro-versiion 3—) work in a library/’25} ' Biminiury-lnieclimmwbia ' fllwdénjury-Eniemlmphofiia S<luarkans ‘mvslulng 58:95:51; New Tendency mam lnipulsvenesswtiiact$ awakens mat {Nth lnuqm Swat},an 1'lele Geha‘fieieme'nfi in tieva mén‘gsry-fififlctfl phobia Person B does nu! have QfimfiC vulnarshilily Parson A has genetic wfinetabikr; 1o dwelt» _ in develop mad-mgiiiwngnmmn phobia. blond-unyiirywnicdlon phobia. £6 Wiman Cram “5.1mm; ' 0 ~50% of variance in persona-Pity or cognitive c.ha;acteristics '35 Cohjplexgene-environment relationships :- Gengés: : ' n Behavior, Cognition, Emotions '- “Bounds” of éfivi-ronmentaI:-impa_ctz I - Environment: _ __ - Genetic; structure and afptivatipn . ' May? Qzléeirride':92¢r1¢*ic diéitheéfiiS... . “I': The-Fieid bf Neurosciencé '- The role of the nervous system ' 5 _ 5 déseage and behav'i'or ' ' '5 Human Nervous Sysiém €62 Brainche flu ' " g _' - Brain ahdspinal cord - PNS ' ' _ _ ' - SOmatic and autbnp'mi'c branches Brain Stem and Fgrebrain Connections .. . .. -- -FW mm- mmrmxamm . swam-mm mam. - - Pmmpnmm mam . new) QWbuMNO-Jwg‘ “mm eur0§6i§fl6e= The Pgriphem' N'ewqus SYStg’i? Baum 5mm; #113123 N Ah! math. I ‘ Carcbwum' mum” mm Sysm 5mm 42m: Scam-Sly mmm; ms»; .mwmc 1M) 6mm mammary mm‘fa: Wm mm mm van-quL Cam-rm oww - - The Neuron- basic bundihg biock ” I Some 5 - mandates- - AXon '_ _ I I Akon'ierminajs I Synaptic deft I . _- Eungtjpn: Electrical! ' _o Qon‘imunicatieojn: liihefniw!E ' __-;' Neurqtrah-smiiters ' H I 2 - - -. Sysm °' PNS éSom-atic _ i I '. 51*,Voiuntary muscles and m0§§em§_ent _' I°ItPNS ‘ Autonomic ' ; 2 _" Sympathetic: (aiCtivatiing)? ' u ' ' '5 " parasympathetic (acii'mal'i'zing) ' Both divisions regulate: ' I I-fig :. " Cardioyascuiar system/bodytemperature:11‘ system/drigestion._i_ ' FQtra.P§rfiitter5 neuroiransmifier and formation cf vesicleg % aSymhesss 0f ' § Q Tyansport of neurotransmitter dawn axon \ fiReuptake 0! n3 transmitter to be - recycled f3 Vesicles withom neumtransmiimr transported back to eel: body £1 mm macammmw mesmai-{s‘z WWW Esméégétm; 0mm ' _ incraases synaptic menoamines: 5-HT. RA. DA : P Equipment on a” 3 human aanspmars mmmm.._w.,,w,ww,.ws rmmmmmm... E Enhances cogmfive 2 pavhfmmce hm ....... W WWW; - Production _ Q; __..§5.- Uptakeand reuptake Fun'étidfié? ' ' 1'. Afitagbhists " _ ' Ca“ '..-.-.:':;; ' 0°. 000 '.: I: g _ gr Receptor . ,4: mas-m my \fl. & t n» am, - 1w . I Must!!! Cd“. 3 Summiae ‘3 CAR‘BM fit‘: I .'_ ié ta?" ' ' Glutamate I Exci-tatory _ I _ I Most common neurotransmitter in the brain- : excitotoxicity, i.e., damaging effects dfié to excessive excitatory neurotransmitter rerease . Gamma aminpbutyr'ic acid - GABA: inhibitory “ '-' Fastébting 5 . _‘ ' Cdfip¥iéxsub3$ystems f; . skimpiidgate'dIizrj'a'nxiety . - I - Ben'zpid'iafZapjnes www.92mmaaminnbmwfcaddnfiamwductcmn 10 v Norepinephrine :-_ ' - Stimulation of alpha— and beta-ad-renergic receptors" -- _ . ' 1 ' '7}: ' Réspirati-on, reactions, alarm response _;‘ imipli¢ated in panic ' v_ “3‘”? Wm . f I 1-3 Dopamine _ __ __ I “switch” fu action in ma n cirCuits - Interacts withipther neurotransmitters - Implicated in-schizoiphrenia _ I Parkinson’si_d5izseasiei ' How Does cocaine Produce its Effects? E1 9 Serotonin (5HT) -_ ‘ Monamine Class ' Reluiiooohipo bérwoan syfiapfoms of depression amf some serotonergit *- Widespread, complex pmgecnwsmmmpm mam-w ciréUE’is ' _ ~ - - I _ Regulates behavior, ' moods; thought :ptécesses . a Low Ievefs and vulnerabilities -. lmplicated in sever-a! : psychopathologies ' SQEQFOM" FiathvvavS -' zenifimfimmvzmsmmmw Mesaslrfiaia} syswm Pmmnta‘ co rlax ’ Mesohmmmrucal sysmm Vamral ragmema: area _ Substanha ‘ mgra .. -; 12 93mm «WW 4 mm W; _ . u: 5W mean m eaauronmsmer .3 . .. emwmwwmme feupnke blocked ‘ '- N 8|: ffizansmtte: - _ Innis In (ha I; _ Twuwmmwwc .- ~ . ammunw wrmm , vesrcms decrgass : . [mm m m w www- wawiwmw-M m in warm mwxsm . . ; hwnsm-iTmmt-x Haumbanimmr ;; m :qur‘m «mm. _ lavas in the synapse-increasas ” . an mm Neomuansmfiers mm mm 5am are exposed tn enzymes than mahchze them “mum, aw??? Neuroscience anqm Ps - cho a-thology ' a.» Psychosocialinfluences on the-brain; - Placebo ' '7 I -__ Pg-thotherapy' pre/po-st design _ _ .'___~-§Fu'nCtiOnai m-rjr'na]i.7:a_.ti;__)r51__E jn OCD. " _ I Stress and eariiyideyelopmenft ' ' cream“ IN HERE? us!‘ ARE?! “Rafi-Wfii SELfJREATMENT W"?! 133. scnwgm's mus—s11? Mfi‘fliob 'n‘ w ngM-mnmmu ’W‘Py nu mm gumm- merinoth In My.» gun-mam Emma-man! .wm WA m 13 - I Learned heiplessness ' - °' Leamed helplessness I u Perceptions Of control": _ - Implicated in: depressie'n; . - Negative" attributions- " I “Learned optimism” 'Ms * Ma nSeh'gman " 14 “Prépared learning I Evolutionary basis I? Increases survivai . I “One—trial” learning Tn. ..;_..4_. Irhpucit'ieaming- 5- __ '0 Blind sight . . _ StroOp paradi-gm_ - ;_5; RES 6,, GREEN I 1. BLUE PURPLE 7. PURPLE 12. PUR?LE GREEN 8. BROWN 13. BROWN BLUE 9. BLUE 3% RES BROWN 3%}. 13 GR§EN _ @ whammn, cmuaau Lnamhg 15 x. . -__ Cultural Factors _ - Irifluence form and expression of behavior f Qujlturailyfibo-und “frighfdisorders’f _ __ Influence on objects Cf fear f3 if {Diem-mien with physiology '55 Walter Cannon 594-2; Voodoo death articie o Gender Effects and; 'Roiies 'I - .. _ I * Related to ouiétufalimperatii/es ' '- lnfliuence aCrOss severagigdimengsions; I - Type and; prevalence” of fears : If I {Fear behéViorS I '- - ReSpOnSes - Coping etrategies“ 16 Eacto 0- Stigma of Psychopathotogy - lnfléuences the expression pf distress _ - Limits hem—seeking behaviors :_::g. - Hei'ps maintain; the Cycle of " pathology ' ' Glo'bai incidehde of-Psychogbggca; Disofdéiré; - I Disorders are Common across cultures *- Rates and expression varies I _ u- Prevaience' and incidenceIififluenced by: .Poverty I ' i - Politics"! unrest « Technological disparities I} .. " Treatment depends on views and pmv'i'der _ .' avaitabflity ' = 17 ; a _ _ _'_’_ __T_h_e Prinoi-pie of Equifinalitye 29:72:12? " :Cghiochetti, 199-1 I "'53 ._'I paths to a giver: outcome : ' vary by developm'e'nitél. stage ._:§Q::Examp!e: DeiiriumT ' _ I I. Ihteraction with other dirfiehsi__ons___ . Sodialsuppogt ii i: 14 S ‘ 3-6” 216:)” E y. g. 3 €13: Ill /, 3 “it: Muftipte' Causation _ - que, not the eXceptidfi I Elements are i-nterzagc’tiWe'2E ' f: .. ; .i' Broad, Comprehensive!-SyS’férfiié PerSpectivé - Bidiogical ' __ _. - PSycholgogica'l - I Social, tundra}, and-devéfopmentaffaoiors get? - ._ 9 Utility for psychopathology } J; ; ' Effie-foggy (causes) ' ' '- .-:-Preye_ntioh___"' - Treatmentfi' 38 ' =Apbl‘ication of the Multidimensiona! Model The :foltowing-stides i'iiuét'rate how the multidimenisional mode: affects a patient with Alzheimer’s disease and her caregivers; Dr. Marcelle Momson—Bogorad is director of the nearoscr'ence and neqmpsychoiogy of aging program I at the National Institute oh Aging. _ v- Biological Iii:- ' GSfiefiCSI PS-1 (preseniliin 1--_rrimitatic$_rj_isiin this gene _ ' ' ' - causes it to act as molecui'ar scissers that help cut the amyloid out of the precursor protein), (amiylpitfi precursor proteifim _ Eeadstopiaques). . . - " '3 _' -- <5% of alt cases _ .- Neurotransmitterszf . _ i « choliner‘gic deficit hypothesis __ {cerebraE-i '_ " _ _ loss if temporal andi'.-parietaI-Iffiasé5 _ E9 w : ‘_‘ Behavioral and: Cognitive. __ ~ Diet, exercise I i l Leafne'd-_h'e-Ipiessnes=s _ __ {Regressive disease N ' {ENG bare f ' i Cognitive activation I Expectancy theory : I Cognitive feSEI'Ve theory - “ _:° EmOti-ona-I' - Depression . oi-Endogefiégaexoggenoue- - -' - I Hope and: h'é-pe:§essn'655 - Support ' I I Engagement in. fife fSpEriit'uality 20 2 Sbcial illlStigma _ __ . 1- Marginalizatiohgof_¢ider_lyi_f__ I * Changing social. demographics ' ~ Publicity ' ' . Funding ' __ _~ Gender effegitg _ {s'lnte-rSebtiqng-with age : :Cui’fiuiral' 833$? .. . - . '- -' InterseggtéicimEWi-th genéim‘sf .: .. LifespanlDeve-i'opmehtéi'i ' - Onset and course; “'55 j '_ ' I Symptom phenq'fypieVI 3 3' I I - Equifinaiity ' " " __ _ - Many roads to-the same outcome : r _ 3 I ninsulinagbmrmatities: H ' i I -. CoginitiVefreseh/e 3-: Genetics --Head~irhjury 21 ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/27/2011 for the course PSY 303 taught by Professor Bower-russa during the Spring '08 term at Grand Valley State University.

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ch 2 - a ff: An integratiire Approach to Psychopathology '...

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