110202 - Ideal and real solutions (Chapter 5 p. 134142)...

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1 CHM3400 - Lecture 12 Feb 2 Ideal and real solutions (Chapter 5 p. 134- 142) Raoult’s Law Henry’s Law Real solutions
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2 Gas pressure above a liquid Raoult’s Law for ideal solutions: * 1 1 1 P x P = P 1 = vapor pressure above the surface x 1 = mol fraction P 1 *= vapor pressure for a pure component (1)
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3 Chemical potential 1 * 1 1 ln ) ( ) ( x RT l l + = μ μ * 1 1 1 P x P = From Raoult’s Law: ) ( ) ( * * g l μμ = In a closed system, the liquid and vapor are at an equilibrium: Chemical potential of a pure component Can derive: * 1 1 * 1 1 ln ) ( ) ( P P RT l l + = μ
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4 Boiling When the boiling point temperature is reached, its saturated vapor pressure equals external atmospheric pressure. Formation of bubbles allow evaporation from the bulk of the solution.
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Clausius-Clapeyron equation Δ = o o vap o T T R H P P 1 1 ln If we know the vapor pressure under standard conditions, we can calculate the pressure at any T. What would we expect for two
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110202 - Ideal and real solutions (Chapter 5 p. 134142)...

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