110204 - 1 CHM3400 - Lecture 13 Feb 4 Colligative...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 CHM3400 - Lecture 13 Feb 4 Colligative properties (Chapter 5 p. 142-154) Vapor pressure lowering Boiling-point elevation Freezing-point depression Osmotic pressure Colligative or collective properties depend on the number of molecules in a system, but not on the properties of the molecules (e.g. size or mass). BUT, can use these phenomena to determine e.g. the mass of a solute, because can determine the number of molecules. 2 Gas pressure above a liquid * 1 1 1 P x P = Raoults Law: When a 2 nd non-volatile component is present at a mole fraction of x 2 , x 1 = 1 x 2 , this equation becomes: * 1 2 1 ) 1 ( P x P = * 1 2 1 * 1 P x P P = or 3 Boiling point elevation At the boiling point, the vapor pressure of a solution is equal to the external pressure. The chemical potential of the solution is lowered in the presence of another liquid (dashed line) Chemical potential for a pure solution Boiling point elevation Remember what stands for?...
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This note was uploaded on 05/29/2011 for the course CHM 3400 taught by Professor Seabra during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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110204 - 1 CHM3400 - Lecture 13 Feb 4 Colligative...

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