L25-Endocrinology4 - Regulation of Blood Glucose Precisely...

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Regulation of Blood Glucose Precisely controlled Blood glucose too low, brain cannot function Blood glucose too high, osmotic balance of blood disturbed Hormones Insulin lowers blood glucose levels Glucagon raises blood glucose levels Please read Chapter 3, pages 126 - 131
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Introduction to the Pancreas Langerhans (1869) - first described the endocrine pancreas - islets of Langerhans Von Mering and Minkowski (1889) - removal of pancreas in dogs resulted in fatal diabetic condition Banting and Best - pancreas produces a hormone responsible for glucose homeostasis Crystalline insulin obtained in 1926 Sanger determined 1 o aa sequence (1954)
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Pancreas an exocrine and an endocrine organ exocrine - secretes bicarbonate and enzymes endocrine - hormones involved with intermediary metabolism (insulin and glucagon)
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Figure 3.32
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Islet (a) rat; (b)human
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Major Hormones of the Pancreas 1. Insulin – beta (B) cells 2. Glucagon – alpha (A) cells 3. Somatostatin – delta (D) cells 4. Others
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1. Insulin Proinsulin is 86 amino acids Mature insulin is 51 amino acids A chain - 21 a.a. B chain - 30 a.a. C chain - 31 a.a. - no physiological role, is secreted.
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Insulin peptide family : Insulin Relaxin Insulin-like growth factors
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Insulin actions 1.Transport/uptake of glucose , amino acids and free fatty acids into cells.
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