L29-GasExchange-1 - Gas Exchange - I Read Chapter 9,...

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Unformatted text preview: Gas Exchange - I Read Chapter 9, 412-443 The Gas Exchange Problem Production of large amounts of ATP at high yield on a sustainable basis requires delivery of nutrients and oxygen. Metabolic wastes (primarily carbon dioxide, excessive water, and some nitrogenous compounds) must also be removed. Diffusion is the only means by which respiratory gases are exchanged between the internal body fluids and the outside medium. Oxygen is typically limiting because is less soluble in water than carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide can be buffered, and carried in large quantities at low partial pressures. A system with the capacity to deliver oxygen has excess capacity to deliver substrates and remove wastes. Overview Respiration Sequence of events that result in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the external environment and the mitochondria ( External respiration and internal respiration) Mitochondrial respiration Production of ATP by oxidation of carbohydrates, amino acids, or fatty acids; oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced Figure 9.1 Respiration and ventilation Inhaled air Exhaled air Alveolar epithelial cells Alveolar spaces CO 2 O 2 C O 2 O 2 Alveolar capillaries of lung Pulmonary veins Pulmonary arteries Systemic veins Systemic arteries Heart Systemic capillaries C O 2 O 2 CO 2 O 2 Body tissue Design principles for gas exchange system Animals have evolved a great diversity of respiratory systems to maximize their rate of gas exchange. All these systems reflect design principles based on the Ficks law of diffussion. Q Q = D D A (C1 (C1 C2)/ C2)/ L 2-- Fi Fi ck ck s s law aw o o f di di ff ff usion usion Q the rate that a substance diffuses between two locations D diffusion coefficient in a particular medium (air has a greater D value than water) A cross-section area L distance between these locations C1 and C2 are the concentrations of the substance at the two locations Figure 9.2a Daltons Law of Partial Pressure...
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L29-GasExchange-1 - Gas Exchange - I Read Chapter 9,...

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