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Unformatted text preview: = <A | and (A op | >) = < |A op = <A | Expectation Value: The average value of the dynamical variable O is given by <O>=< |O op | >=< |O > and <O>=< |O op | >=<O | > . Expectation Value of Hermitian Operators: The expectation values of hermitian operators are real. Proof: The expectation value of the dynamical variable H op is <H> = < |H op | > and taking the complex conjugate of both sides gives <H> * = < |H op | > * = < |H op | > = < |H op | > = <H>, where I used H op = H op . Thus, <H> = <H> * , which means that <H> is real....
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- Spring '07