Unformatted text preview: Light
Light It is against the honor code to “click” for someone elseviolators will loose all clicker pts. We have observed light
1. travels in straight lines
4. transmits energy from
one place to another HITT RF Remote Login Procedure: Two theories could explain
these phenomena. The radio channel number for this room is “09” (zero, nine).
It is STRONGLY recommended to login your remote for every class just
to be sure it is on the correct radio channel and working before class. 1.
4. PRESS AND HOLD THE DOWN ARROW KEY until the
GREEN light on the remote turns RED.
PRESS THE “0” KEY and you will see the RED light flash
PRESS THE “9” KEY and you will see the RED light flash
PRESS AND RELEASE THE DOWN ARROW KEY again
and you will see the red light search for the receiver, if it
BLINKS GREEN MULTIPLE TIMES you are logged in. Thanks to friends at Texas A&M U for help with the slides What were the two theories of light in the 1600s
and who were their main advocates?
E. Corpuscular-Newton and Wave-Huygens
Corpuscular-Huygens and Wave-Newton
Gravity-Newton and String-Weinberg
Force-Newton and Wave-Huygens
Wave-Aristotle and Gravity-Newton The WAVE THEORY,
and Robert Hooke,
said that light was a wave.
The PARTICLE (corpuscular) THEORY, advocated
by Isaac Newton and later by Pierre Laplace, said
that light was made up of a stream
of tiny particles
called corpuscles. The more popular theory was the particle theory
because φϕερυισ reputation of Isaac Newton. .
because φϕερυισ φνευ µδυ ωο υιδφ νσευφ ϕφκγλβ The debate among the two sides continued
through the mid 1800’s. Newton’s particle theory could easily explain the
straight line travel of light, reflection, and energy
transmission, but had trouble explaining refraction. 1801
interference of light was discovered
1816 - diffraction of light (actually observed
in the 1600’s but not given much significance)
was explained using interference principles Newton’s explanation of refraction required that
light must travel faster in water than in air.
Huygen’s wave theory could easily explain reflection,
energy transmission, and refraction, but had difficulty
explaining the straight line travel of light. The wave theory’s explanation of refraction
required that light must travel
slower in water than in air. Neither phenomena could be explained
satisfactorily by the particle theory.
The final blow to the particle
theory came in 1850 when
Jean Foucault discovered that
light traveled faster in air
than in water. It was then widely accepted that light was a wave,
but what kind of wave?
In 1865, James Maxwell
developed ideas began by
Michael Faraday into a
series of equations that
proposed the electromagnetic wave theory. It
said that light was a type of e/m wave: a periodic
e/m wave: periodic
disturbance involving electric and magnetic forces. foucault light demo
Foucault put a tube of water in the light beam and
showed that light slowed down in the water!
Newton was wrong! The whole universe is composed of SHOs
SHO is system with linear restoring force to original
Frequency f = 1ω
T 2π ωms = k
L Types of Waves – Transverse λ X direction (space/not time)
Longitudinal or compression
λ Chapter 14 Wave motion-Wave velocity c
t Oscillators make Waves
All waves carry energy and momentum
Each part of spring moves
⊥To wave motion
Like AM radio Pendulum ωp = In 1885, Heinrich Hertz
In 1885 Heinrich
the e/m theory of light.
the e/m Tuning Forks produce single frequency sound c = λƒ
Always true: Light-transverse
Any wave Most waves need a medium-Except light λ
• As the tuning fork vibrates, a succession
of compressions and rarefactions spread
out from the fork
• A sinusoidal curve can be used to
represent the longitudinal wave
– Crests correspond to compressions and
troughs to rarefactions Categories of Sound Waves
• Audible waves
– human hearing:
Normally between 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz
• Infrasonic waves
– Frequencies are below the audible rangeEarthquakes or car stereos
• Ultrasonic waves
– Frequencies are above the audible range
Dog whistles Middle C on the piano is 440 Hz. The speed of
sound in air is about 330 m/s. What is the
wavelength of this sound wave?
4. 4.7 m
0.87 c = λƒ
Always true: Light-transverse
Any wave ...
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