lecture 15 101014 - James Clerk Maxwell 1831 1879...

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10/14/2010 1 James Clerk Maxwell 1831 – 1879 Electricity and magnetism were originally thought to be unrelated in 1865, James Clerk Maxwell provided a mathematical theory that showed a close relationship between all electric and magnetic phenomena Maxwell’s Starting Points Electric field lines originate on positive charges and terminate on negative charges Magnetic field lines always form closed loops – they do not begin or end anywhere A varying magnetic field induces an emf and hence an electric field (Faraday’s Law) Magnetic fields are generated by moving charges or currents (Ampère’s Law) Maxwell used these starting points and a corresponding mathematical framework to prove that electric and magnetic fields play symmetric roles in nature He hypothesized that a changing electric field would produce a magnetic field Maxwell calculated the speed of light to be 3x10 8 m/s He concluded that visible light and all other electromagnetic waves consist of fluctuating electric and magnetic fields, with each varying field inducing the other Maxwell’s Predictions Hertz Confirms of Maxwell’s Predictions 1857 – 1894 First to generate and detect electromagnetic waves in a laboratory setting
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