lecture21 101116 - 11/18/2010 Cryogenic History A story of...

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11/18/2010 1 Cryogenic History A story of people intertwined by Curiosity Necessity Industry Ideal and not-so-Ideal Gases Ideal Gas Law: P V = constant Amontons-1702 Absolute Zero— Temperature at which Pressure goes to zero at fixed Volume Also proposed Theory of Friction Amontons Thermometry • Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) • German physicist • invented alcohol thermometer (1709) • Hg thermometer in (1714) • Introduced temperature scale - Fahrenheit Scale-in 1724 . Celsius Scale-1742 • On Fahrenheit scale, two very significant things for humans happened at two very insignificant points. The temperature at which water freezes is at 32 degrees and the temperature at which water boils is at 212. • Why did Mr. F. do this? • Why not, Celsius thought, simplify things a bit and call the freezing point zero and the boiling point 100. Anders Celsius William Cullen-University of Glasgow (UK) obtained ice by evaporation of water in vacuo First method of artificial refrigeration First artificial production of ice- 1748
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11/18/2010 2 Backwards Steam Engine James Watt-1769
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lecture21 101116 - 11/18/2010 Cryogenic History A story of...

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