class 1 - May 9

class 1 - May 9 - May 9 May Rationale, History, Rationale,...

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Unformatted text preview: May 9 May Rationale, History, Rationale, and Growth of Public Administration Administration 1 The class The Lectures on chapters (supplements Lectures text) text) Participation (discussion questions Participation and attendance) and Quizzes (5) Mid-term Final Bill Analysis (5 pages) 2 Class Blackboard site Class Check it often Includes discussion questions for each Includes class; post your responses in thread for that class for Includes copies of PowerPoint slides Includes for each class for Includes example bill analysis and APA Includes style guide style 3 Participation Participation 20% of grade, based on attendance and 20% participation in discussion questions participation A group of students will propose group discussion questions for each class (each member poses two questions on Blackboard) - sign up tonight Blackboard) Each student responds to at least 3 Each questions questions Group leads discussion of questions Group and answers - around 30 minutes at end of class end 4 Quizzes Quizzes 20% of grade Five quizzes May 16, May 23, June 1, June 6, June 13 12 questions each, you answer 10 12 If you answer more, I stop at #10!! Multiple choice and short answer 5 Bill Analysis Bill 20% of grade Submit proposal by start of class May 16th. Final paper due by start of class June 8th. Analyze a bill taken up during 2011 Regular Analyze Legislative Session For ideas, search on Florida House or Senate For websites websites The bill you choose must have been passed The by the Legislature, but can be one that was vetoed by Governor Scott. vetoed 6 Bill Analysis Bill Sections Executive Summary – overview of bill – about ½ Executive page page Background – include information such as prior Background legislative action, litigation or other significant historical info – about ½ to 1 page historical Policy Analysis – describe the issues/problems Policy the bill addresses the Fiscal Analysis – revenue/expenditure impacts Conclusion and recommendations – approve or Conclusion veto? – about ½ page veto? References – at least 5 – does not count toward References page limit page 7 Midterm and final Midterm Mid-term on May 25th and will cover chapters 1-8 and 11 chapters Due to no class on Memorial Day, we will Due cover chapter 9 first and then have midcover term in second half of class Cumulative Final on June 15th Multiple choice, fill in blank, short answer Each counts 20% of your grade 8 Why have government? Why While private sector (the market) does many things While well, there are market failures that must be addressed addressed Provide public goods that aren’t well supplied by Provide individuals or the market (national defense, criminal and civil justice, civil rights, resource protection) and Address monopolies Address externalities – spill over effects such as Address pollution that the market won’t control pollution Address incomplete information (consumer safety) Set and enforce ‘rules of the game’ for market Set Soften effects of capitalism and provide countercyclical protections cyclical Public administration manages programs to meet Public these needs these 9 Defining public administration Defining Public administration: what government does – what build roads, collect garbage, provide higher education, protect the environment, administer courts and prisons, etc. courts Essentially the study of how government is and Essentially should be administered should Public bureaucracy: the organizations that carry Public out public programs (but includes private contractors and non-profits) contractors Public bureaucracy is often considered too Public inefficient to accomplish much but at the same time is feared as too powerful and effective 10 Public policy versus public administration administration Public policy is what government Public what chooses to do to address policy issues chooses generally determined by political generally system system Public administration is “how government does it” government carried out by bureaucracy and its carried agents agents 11 Administration isn’t politics, but… but… Public administration generally involves the Public implementation of policies that are made by elected officials elected Traditionally, administration was seen as Traditionally, divorced from politics (Wilson politics/administration dichotomy) politics/administration But, distinction isn’t that clear – administrators But, can and do make policy can • Propose much policy that is adopted by political process • Must reconcile conflicting policy directives and fill in Must missing details missing • In reality, administrators must be responsive to key In groups groups 12 Why study PA? Why It is big – around a third of the economy It counting federal, state, and local counting It has a huge impact on life (taxes, subsidies, It laws, regulations) laws, It has a lot of power It is often controversial A lot of you will work in it (including political lot system, agencies, contractors, non-profits, consulting firms) consulting 13 Context of PA Context PA doesn’t occur in a vacuum. It is hugely PA influenced by political system, social trends, and the economy and These changes both create new problems to These be addressed as well as help define how administration will be carried out administration e.g., Great Depression created huge social e.g., problems, overwhelmed existing institutions problems, Only federal government had resources to Only respond, but sought to work in part through existing state and local agencies existing Systems perspective Systems The environment in which PA operates The (including political, social, and economic forces) creates demands for services, provides resources, and establishes key stakeholders that must be satisfied stakeholders Administrative agencies use inputs to Administrative produce outputs (goods and services) produce Feedback loops exist – outputs produce Feedback changes in environment, leading to changes in demands in services Key environmental factors Key Political system - influences PA Political through through Political parties Platforms (party and individual) Ideology (e.g., pro- or anti-privatization) Patronage (appointments to jobs, direct Patronage and indirect influence over contacts and services) services) Interest groups Key environmental factors Key Economic conditions – influences PA Economic through Level of resources that are available • Cuts often imposed during recessions, more Cuts funding available during good economic times funding Demands for services • E.g., crime, child abuse goes up during E.g., recessions recessions Some public demands are be related to Some income • E.g., wealthier areas are more interested in E.g., cultural programs, high levels of services cultural Social factors Social Attitudes and values about proper role Attitudes of government, society, and individual roles roles Changes over time Pre-Great Depression – government had little Pre-Great responsibility to address social problems responsibility 1930s on – government can and should try to 1930s solve social problems solve 1980s on – ‘government is the problem’, seen 1980s as too large, bureaucratic, ineffective as Social conditions influence PA Social Social problems result in government Social actions • Lots of civil unrest during 1960s – concern with Lots civil rights, law and order, “war on poverty”, ‘New Public Administration’ focus on equity ‘New • Focus on environment during late 1960s, 1970s • More conservative focus since 1980s More • Early 1990s – focus on juvenile justice • Now focus is on economic development, Now competitiveness, education reform Bureaucracy has power Bureaucracy While subservient to political system, While bureaucracy has major sources of power bureaucracy Expertise – staff are experts on details of Expertise governing, much policy comes from them governing, Stability – large staffs have civil service Stability protection, and can wait out politicians protection, Delegation – laws typically leave details for Delegation agencies to resolve (street level discretion) agencies Political support – agencies have political Political support of constituencies they serve and legislators legislators As a result, some agencies are very As independent of political system independent 20 Example Example Traffic enforcement Traffic Who sets enforcement policy? Who Who sets patrol strategy? Who decides whether to give you a ticket Who or accept your excuse for speeding? Who decides whether to prosecute your Who case? case? So, who has power? 21 Public trust in government is low Public Source: Pew Center for the States, April 2010 22 Reasons for limited trust Trend is driven by external events and Trend scandals scandals Typically falls during recessions Typically falls during elections (LOTS of Typically money spent convincing voters that incumbent party is incompetent) incumbent Most folks have little idea who does Most what – it is all “the government” what While trust in government is low, public While demand for services has steadily risen demand 23 Public administration is different than private administration than Public and private administration are alike in Public all unimportant ways all Both involve large organizations Both are subject legal constraints Both seek to achieve goals To some extent, management is management To regardless of whether it is public or private regardless The line between public and private is The increasingly blurred under privatization, public/private partnerships public/private 24 Public versus private Public There are critical differences between public There administration and private administration administration Public organizations exist to achieve a public Public mission established by law Private organizations exist to make a profit; while Private subject to legal constraints they can generally take actions as they deem appropriate take They operate under very different environments They and constraints and These differences make it difficult to impossible to These ‘run government like a business’ ‘run 25 Public environment is different Public goals are often vague and conflicting Harder to measure government results - often no Harder clear bottom line Much more public scrutiny and oversight Authority is fragmented due to separation of Authority powers/levels of government powers/levels Often must rely on persuasion instead of Often authority due to multiple interest groups authority Career service versus at will employment Shorter management time frame (next election) Process matters – red tape is there for a reason 26 Public vs private organizations Public Attribute Private Public Goal maximize profit, maximize efficiency efficiency typically multiple, typically vague, conflicting; equity and efficiency efficiency Ownership shareholders citizens Funding S=sales/profit taxes, fees Transparency largely private mostly public Environment market forces political forces Time period of Time focus focus llong and short ong term term short term (often short the election cycle) the Leadership professional political and political professional professional Authority/ accountability concentrated diffuse 27 Government has grown over time time As a percentage of gross domestic product 28 Federal revenues and spending fairly constant in recent years fairly Year Federal Federal revenues revenues Federal Federal expenditures expenditures 1970 19.0 19.3 1975 17.9 18.7 1980 19.0 21.7 1985 17.7 22.2 1990 18.0 21.9 1995 18.4 20.6 2000 20.6 18.2 2005 17.3 19.9 2009 14.8 24.7 As a percentage of gross domestic product 29 Growth in government reflects societal changes societal Initially government didn’t do much – routine Initially functions such as deliver mail, collect customs duties – didn’t require complex organizations or strong management skills organizations As society became more complex due to As urbanization and industrialization, greater demands were placed on government demands More infrastructure (interstate highways) More regulation of environment, workplace More concern with equity (poverty programs, More child support enforcement) child More support of education to meet needs of More changing economy changing Responses to national emergencies (wars, Responses recessions) recessions) 30 Required changes in public administration administration We had to develop organizations to We deliver these services deliver We had to learn how to manage large, We complex organizations complex We had to balance the competing and We changing demands of society changing This process continues 31 Eras of US public administration administration Government by the elite (1787 ~ 1829) Government by the common man (1830 Government ~1872) Reform era (1872 ~ 1920) Principles of administration (1910 ~ Principles 1937) 1937) Executive leadership (1937 ~ 1960s) Executive 32 Eras of public administration Eras New Public Administration (late 1960s New ~ early 1970s) early Cutback management (1970s ~ 1980s) Public choice/new public management/ reinventing government (1980s ~ 2000) Era of ideology (~2000 to present) 33 Key challenges Key Deep historical ambivalence towards Deep government government Administering modern government with Administering constitutional system developed for agrarian economy economy Constitution says virtually nothing about executive Constitution branch of government. Founders didn’t anticipate modern government; it isn’t set up in constitution and can be challenged as illegitimate can Government must balance competing core Government values – both politically and within administration administration How government does things is critical – it must 34 balance equity and efficiency balance Competing values Competing Efficiency versus responsiveness Be as efficient as possible, yet be Be responsive to citizen and elected official demands demands • Should all citizens receive equal services Should regardless of cost, or receive varying services based on ability to pay? based • Should government maximize its efficiency, or Should maximize its responsiveness to citizens? maximize 35 Competing values Competing Public versus private Generally seek to minimize government Generally intrusion into economy, but some functions are inherently governmental functions • Public goods – civil rights, defense, law Public enforcement, environmental protection enforcement, • Difficult to privatize public good provision as Difficult equity is important as well as efficiency; hard to create market mechanisms that avoid shirking shirking 36 Competing values Competing Majority rule versus individual rights Majority Majority rule Majority But, US Constitution is fundamentally But, designed to protect individual rights from governmental (majority) power. This is often controversial – e.g., prayer in school and evolution debates, desegregation, rights of arrested persons and ‘unlawful combatants’ 37 Competing values Competing Uniformity versus diversity Uniform services are more efficient to Uniform deliver and provide equal protection deliver But, ‘one size fits all’ often doesn’t fit local But, situations and can be highly bureaucratic situations Issue arises in many areas – federal Issue standards versus state control; state standards versus local control standards 38 Competing values Competing Opportunity versus equity Generally seek to minimize governmental Generally regulation of economy regulation But, while capitalism maximizes But, opportunities, it is relatively unconcerned with individual rights and outcomes with Question of how equitable outcomes Question should be is ongoing. Are we our brother’s keeper? Government often intervenes to set equity standards • Minimum wage, 40 – hour week, child labor, Minimum anti-discrimination laws anti-discrimination 39 Competing values Competing Limited government versus public Limited sovereignty sovereignty What is the appropriate level of What government expenditures and activities? Whatever people vote for, or is there a constitutional limit on what can/should be done? done? 40 Competing values Competing Administrative neutrality versus Administrative responsiveness to elected officials responsiveness What responsibility does an administrator What have to broader public interest? have • What should they do if directed by elected What officials to give special treatment to a favored group, cut services to an out-of-favor group, or take an action that violates the law? take 41 Public administration varies globally Public Other nations balance the competing Other values differently – public administration operates very differently in other countries in Public sector is generally larger than in US Public administration often given greater Public deference deference Civil service protection is often much Civil wider – including top-level managers wider 42 For next class For Read chapters 3 and 4 Respond to discussion questions Think about bill choice for bill analysis, Think must be submitted NEXT MONDAY must 43 ...
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