class 2 - May 11

class 2 - May 11 - May 11 May Ethics and the political...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: May 11 May Ethics and the political ecology Ethics of public administration Ethics must guide actions Ethics They are important because They administrators have discretion and power Can’t eliminate all discretion Can’t through policies/procedures (nor would you want to) would So, something must guide the So, decisions that are made 2 Can be Powerful Accountability Tool Tool Rather than trying to control Rather bureaucracy from the outside, administrative ethics seeks to provide accountability from the inside accountability Ensure that administrators themselves Ensure seek to behave in responsible, efficient, effective, and democratic manner in their work work 3 Administrative Ethics Administrative “The application of moral principles to The the conduct of officials in organizations” (Thompson) organizations” The rights and duties that administrators The should respect when acting in ways that seriously affect the well-being of others (e.g., is it good) (e.g., Conditions that collective practices and Conditions policies should satisfy when affecting similarly situated people (e.g., equal treatment) treatment) 4 Source of ethics Source Deeply held and shared moral values Deeply (‘regime values’) (‘regime ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident, We that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness’ – life, Declaration of Independence Declaration Sources of ethics Sources Deontology asserts there are universal Deontology truths that should guide conduct truths Administrators should be guided by this moral Administrators code – ‘what action is most consistent with our core values’; do the right thing core Downside – values can be in conflict, ‘the road to Downside hell is paved with good intentions’ hell Utilitarianism asserts that results of Utilitarianism decisions are just as important as intent Administrators should do what works for Administrators the overall good of society overall • Downside – there are winners and losers Administrative Ethics Administrative Issue was heightened after WWII, when Issue Nuremburg Trials rejected the “I was only following orders” defense raised by Nazi officials by Became a hot topic after Vietnam and Became Watergate, when lots of government officials were determined to have lied and/or broken the law Issue also raised recently in Iraq war Issue (Scooter Libby, Abu Ghraib) (Scooter 7 ASPA and FL Codes of Ethics ASPA Both ASPA and Florida have Both established codes of ethics established They are fairly general ASPA Code – Serve the public interest Respect the constitution and the law Demonstrate personal integrity Promote ethical organizations Strive for professional excellence 8 Ethics laws Ethics Federal and state law prescribe many Federal ethical requirements ethical Open meetings Open records Open procurement Financial disclosure Conflict of interest provisions Nepotism prohibitions Prohibitions on political activity Prohibitions Whistleblower protections These can be attacked as ‘red tape’ Bureaucratic ethos Administrators should be accountable Administrators to elected officials – politically neutral to Administrators should adhere to Administrators management values – efficiency efficacy efficacy expertise expertise loyalty accountability Democratic ethos Democratic Administrators should uphold Administrators democratic values democratic promote good citizenship uphold the public interest encourage civic participation be responsive to political leaders seek social equity These can also be attacked as vague These and encouraging administrators to act politically politically Neutrality Neutrality Administrators have a responsibility to Administrators faithfully execute laws and policies determined by political process and chief executives chief Can work to shape policy, but once Can decided, their job is to carry policy out; have option of resigning if cannot agree to support policy support 12 Neutrality Neutrality Is the option of ‘sucking it up or Is resigning’ really feasible? resigning’ Administrators have families to support, Administrators vested retirements, etc., and finding comparable job isn’t that easy comparable Many decisions are incremental, and Many adverse effects only occur in aggregate (e.g., permitting wetland destruction) (e.g., If only recourse is to resign, then If government will be populated ONLY by those willing to go along those 13 Internal versus external accountability accountability Internal versus external accountability was Internal subject of a classic argument between to early PA scholars early Carl Friedrich argued that accountability is Carl best attained through internal checks and internal balances – administrators behaving ethically, as external checks wouldn’t work due to information advantage of administrators information Herman Finer argued that administrative Herman responsibility can only be attained externally, as source of authority is the legislative branch and the people 14 What would you do? What You have a choice to hire one of two You equally qualified people, and get call from management to hire one related to elected official elected You are directed to promote the You Governor’s position in legislative presentation, but you disagree with it You are responsible for a no-bid You contract decision, and get a call from the Governor’s office strongly suggesting one vendors suggesting 15 What would you do? What You are directed to leak information to You discredit someone who is viewed as a political threat, although information later turns out to be confidential (Scooter Libby case) case) You are directed to authorize a permit to a You developer who does not meet statutory criteria criteria You are directed to ‘vigorously interrogate’ You someone who has been detained as an ‘enemy combatant’ 16 The Executive Branch The Most public administration occurs within Most the executive branch the However, it is greatly influenced by However, division of power between the three branches of government This approach to government is different This from that used by most other democracies from In parliamentary system, the head of the In legislature (prime minister) is also the head of executive branch (England, Canada, Germany, etc.) Germany, Executive branch Executive Headed by chief executive (President at Headed federal level, Governor at state level) federal There are different types of agencies Cabinet agencies – headed by secretary Cabinet appointed by president (federal level) or Governor (state level), and under their direct policy control direct • Department of Defense, Health and Human Department Services (federal) Services • Department of Corrections, Health (Florida) Independent Agencies Independent Independent agencies: non-cabinet non-cabinet departments, account for one-tenth of federal government’s employees and one-fifth of its spending one-fifth Social Security Administration, Federal Social Reserve System at federal level, Public Service Commission in Florida Service Intended to insulate activities from Intended political control Independent Agencies Independent Regulatory commissions: headed by appointed board, monitor and regulate major features of economy (transportation, communications, power production and distribution, banking, etc.) distribution, Service-based independent agencies: generally a special historical condition for particular mission particular Government corporations: engaged in engaged lending, insurance, and other business-type operations operations e.g., Corporation for Public Broadcasting, e.g., FDIC FDIC Bureaus Bureaus Bureaus: principal operating organizations of the government; cover many organizations within larger departments departments e.g., Bureau of Motor Vehicles, Internal e.g., Revenue Service Revenue Bureaucracy is government by bureaus Many at state and local levels Field Offices Field Most government operations, including Most bulk of federal operations, done in the field field Thousands of field offices in states and Thousands overseas overseas Can be organized by function (handles Can policy function such as air quality regulation) or by region (Florida office that coordinates all programs in the area) area) Management challenges Chief executive doesn’t control all executive Chief branch – some appointments require legislative approval legislative Presidents often weak at managing executive Presidents branch; not chosen for managerial ability, unconcerned with administration unconcerned Presidents often disappointed when they Presidents count on cabinet members to ensure administrative effectiveness administrative Can be many interdepartmental friction Can points and turf battles Burden of top-level coordination falls on Burden aides and staff agencies aides Florida executive branch Florida Agencies Agencies Typically have several levels of subdivisions Divisions • Bureaus Sections Sections Often have regional and field offices as well There are trade-offs in organizational There structure structure Centralized – more direct policy control, but less Centralized responsive to local variations responsive Decentralized or regional – more responsive to Decentralized local conditions, but less uniformity in operations local Control over executive branch Control Chief executive has several tools to oversee Chief and direct the executive branch and Appoints lots of high officials who serve at Appoints their pleasure their • • Around 2500 federal appointments Around Around 17,000 at-will employees in Florida Need to balance expertise with political Need loyalty loyalty • Tend to get in trouble if base appointments purely Tend on political factors (think FEMA and Katrina) on Central staff oversee agencies (Office of the Central President, Office of the Governor) President, Control of executive branch Control Chief executive can reorganize Chief agencies under their jurisdiction Controls agency budget requests and Controls how they implement legislatively approved budget approved At federal level, a central unit must At approve all proposed agency regulations regulations Limitations to control Limitations Legislative branch must approve some Legislative appointments and reorganizations appointments Legislative branch must approve major Legislative policy initiatives and budget policy Some actions can be challenged in court Most staff have civil service protections Interest groups influence agency actions, Interest can co-opt them Can have ‘iron triangle’ between legislative Can committees, interest groups, and agencies committees, Legislative oversight Legislative Legislative branch has constitutional Legislative duty to oversee implementation of laws and budgets it enacts and Approve certain appointments “Fire alarm and police patrol” oversight • Fire alarm – rely on outside groups to notify Fire legislature when problems occur legislature • Police patrol – identify problems though Police oversight studies oversight Hold hearings and conduct investigations There is ongoing tension – oversight There versus micromanaging Judicial oversight Judicial Agencies must follow specified Agencies procedures when issuing rules and regulations – outlined in Administrative Procedures Act Procedures Must publish proposed rules Must accept public comment Must hold public hearings Agency actions can be challenged in Agency court as either not authorized by law or as unconstitutional Judicial oversight Judicial Public interest groups frequently sue Public agencies (particularly at federal level) for not rigorously implementing laws for Example – EarthJustice lawsuit that EPA Example wasn’t requiring Florida to implement Clean Water Act provisions, leading to new controversial proposal to set pollution limits for Florida water bodies limits Individuals can sue when they have Individuals been injured by agency actions (limited by sovereign immunity) by Reinventing government Reinventing There have been periodic efforts to reform There government throughout its history government Progressive era (1860s to 1920) – create civil Progressive service systems to create professional workforce and insulate it from politics workforce Initiative in 1920s to improve budget Initiative management (annual appropriations, GAO) management Brownlow Committee in late 1930s to create Brownlow stronger control over growing federal bureaucracy (created Executive Office of President) President) Reinventing government Reinventing First and second Hoover Commissions First (strengthened presidential control of executive branch) 1960s – Planning-Programming Budgeting 1960s System (PPBS) to ‘rationalize’ budgeting System 1970s – Reorganize OMB to strengthen 1970s oversight of agency operations, create Senior Executive Service 1980s – Grace Commission – cost savings 1980s ideas (few implemented) ideas Reinventing government Reinventing 1990s – National Performance Review – sought 1990s to streamline operations, privatize, and make agencies more entrepreneurial Had some successes, but calls to reduce Had legislative oversight and ‘micromanagement’ generally didn’t get implemented generally 2000s – Efforts to reduce civil service 2000s protections to make staff more responsive to chief executives (Florida, other states) Calls to reinvent government and operate it Calls more like a business will continue, but will continue to run into value conflicts continue Discussion questions Discussion ‘Accountability Budgeting’ Make each state agency set annual goals for Make every dollar they spend, then measure their performance against those goals and hold them accountable for their outcomes. accountable Require bureaucrats to justify the way they Require spend tax revenues by being accountable, eliminate waste, increase efficiencies and eliminate ineffective programs. eliminate For next class For Read chapters 5 and 6 Respond to discussion questions Study for Quiz 1 on Tuesday Think about bill choice for bill analysis Think - must be submitted by Tuesday must 38 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 05/29/2011 for the course PAD 3003 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at FSU.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online