class 5 - May 23

class 5 - May 23 - May 23 May Organizations and Public...

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Unformatted text preview: May 23 May Organizations and Public Organizations Administration Administration 1 Organizations Organizations Modern organizations overlap several Modern academic disciplines academic Political science Psychology Business administration Sociology Economics Organizational theory is the framework Organizational by which to study these. by 2 What is an organization? What A structured system of roles and structured functional relationships designed to carry out certain activities or policies. carry Coordination should also be included Coordination as it is required to direct activities toward a common purpose. toward 3 Why is theory important? Why Designed to improve comprehension of Designed social reality social Helps us make sense of the facts Without it, the world consists of myriad Without facts but little understanding about how they all fit together. how 4 Classical Organization Theory Classical Early theories of organizations Maximizing output for the least input is Maximizing key to success key Efficiency achieved through labor and Efficiency hierarchical design hierarchical “One best way” One Can be identified in a systematic, rational Can way and written down as best practice for future use future Max Weber and Frederick Taylor Max 5 Classical Organization Theories Classical Ideal Bureaucracy (Weber) Bureaucracy most rational form of Bureaucracy observation observation Characteristics • • • • • Systematic division of labor Chain of command Protection of organizational resources Written documents and file keeping Rules and regulations Downfall – impersonal rules dehumanize Downfall employees 6 Bureaucratic employment Bureaucratic Key Characteristics Selection by appointment not election Selection based on professional Selection qualifications and technical expertise qualifications Income based on position Promotion based on merit Subject to internal discipline and control 7 Classical Organization Theories Classical Scientific Management (Taylor) Emphasis on efficiency and creating Emphasis cooperation in the workplace cooperation Started with high-level managers – Started responsible for organizational inefficiency responsible Competence and merit should be Competence foundation of an organization foundation Administrative Management (Gulick) Administrative Strong chief executive critical People limited by time and space – People division of labor essential division 8 Classical Organization Theories Classical Administrative Management (Gulick) Strong chief executive critical People limited by time and space – People division of labor essential division Top-down approach to Top-down coordination/control coordination/control • Define tasks; select executive to oversee Define project; divide tasks and assign to units appropriately; establish network of communication and supervision communication Chain of command = one supervisor for Chain each task and limited number of subordinates subordinates 9 POSCORB POSCORB The essential tasks of management Planning the activity the Organizing the activity Staffing the organization Directing and providing leadership Coordinating functions and avoiding overlap overlap Developing reporting structures and keeping records keeping Budgeting and fiscal control 10 Organizational Humanism Organizational Focus on personal dimension of Focus organizations – interpersonal relationships relationships Law of Situations (Mary Parker Follett) Executives responsible for Executives • coordination (encourage participation and coordination unification among employees) unification • Definition of purpose (creating sense of shared Definition mission) mission) • Anticipation (development of a sense of larger Anticipation good in organization) good Provide input but not on how to run it 11 Organizational Humanism Organizational Hawthorne Effect (Elton Mayo) Productivity impacted by environment, not Productivity just material incentives just Informal Organizations (Elton Mayo) Workers influenced more by social groups Workers than physical condition or supervisors than Functions of the Executive (Chester Barnard) Obtain cooperation via rewards Maintain it via communication Create broad vision and long term goals • Limited by ‘zone of indifference’ 12 Organizational Humanism Organizational Herbert Simon – scientific administration Herbert scientific Bounded Rationality – don’t analyze every Bounded alternative; use cause-effect relationships; apply simple ‘rules of thumb’ for more real – apply world decisions • Overly constrained view of decision-making Fact-value dichotomy – use of facts versus Fact-value personal values (administrators should internalize professional norms and ethical codes) codes) • Org efficiency criteria are value statements Biggest contributions to public Biggest organizations organizations 13 Other Organizational Theories Other Open Systems Theory (David Easton) Environment key factor in organizations Political process system of inputs and outputs Contingency Theory – success depends on how Contingency organization fits in the environment – one size does not fit all does Public Choice Theory (Downs and Ostrom) Downs – public organizations emphasize benefits Downs they provide over costs to society; expansion not subject to market controls subject Ostrom – emphasis on use of many organizations Ostrom to deliver mix of services to Critique – inaccurate/cynical view of human Critique 14 behavior, promotes social inequities behavior, New Public Administration New George Frederickson Developed out of political turbulence of the Developed 1960’s 1960’s More aggressive in helping solve societal More problems using knowledge to improve human conditions conditions Value neutral approach – incorporate values and Value technical expertise technical Challenged politics-administration dichotomy Challenged (encouraged administrators to make policy (encouraged Challenged hierarchical, bureaucratic structures 15 New Public Management New Most recent example to redesign public Most sector to be more like private sector sector Shares classical theory idea that Shares business practices increase efficiency business Bureaucrats should work more to fulfill Bureaucrats service demands of citizen-customers service Emphasis is on competition and Emphasis performance driven measures performance 16 Postmoderm Postmoderm Most radical departure from classic theory Goal is to critically examine meaning and Goal rationality rationality Focus on disintegration and decentralization; Focus society is in permanent state of flux society Hierarchical structures stifle democracy, Hierarchical organizations are a product of human thoughts and actions, language is the chief mean of understanding the world understanding Critique – too theoretical to apply to mainstream Critique world world 17 Organizational Design Organizational Three-Dimensional Model Formalization – extent to which jobs, employee Formalization behavior and work processes are standardized (IRS, law enforcement) law • Characterized by creation of job descriptions, standard Characterized operating procedures, professionalism operating Centralization - Most radical departure from classic Centralization theory – who is in control of key administrative functions functions Complexity – mechanisms that organizations use to Complexity coordinate activities; glue that holds organizations together together Understanding organizations requires understanding Understanding structure and design and accounting for specialization of tasks and coordination of efforts tasks 18 Organizational Dimensions Organizational Classical Bureaucracy Enhance internal control by structures that emphasize Enhance predictability and accountability – machine like predictability Top down authority; most formal structure Critiques – slow, inflexible, inefficient Ex: police department Professional Bureaucracy Common in government and non-profit Employees trained in a specific profession Authority based on professional norms and standards Ex: schools, hospitals 19 Organizational Dimensions Organizational Organic Organization Less rigid structure Characterized by adaptation and flexibility Decentralized and diffused authority Teams and task forces primary means of coordination Benefits • Breaks down barriers between departments • Teamwork encourages communication • Employee friendly because of flat organizational design Disadvantages • No defined hierarchy – causes conflict, uncertainty and stress No for employees for Extremely rare in government 20 Civil Society and Networks Civil Clusters of separate, independent organizations Clusters whose actions are coordinated by contracts and informal agreements informal Common in non-profit sector Differ from traditional bureaucratic structure – Differ ‘no one is in charge’ ‘no Characteristics Common mission Members are interdependent Unique structure because all parties are equal Proponents see them as innovative Proponents Opponents concerned about accountability and Opponents responsiveness responsiveness 21 Organizational power Organizational There are several sources of power Legitimate (based on official position) Coercive (based on ability to punish or discipline Coercive subordinates) subordinates) Reward (based on ability to give benefits – Reward promotions, raises) promotions, Referent (based on psychological identification w/ coworkers) Expert (based on knowledge/skill) Real power may not line up with Real organizational chart May be based on outside links and ability to May exercise power 22 Advantages and disadvantages Advantages Can be very efficient Can Is very standardized But, individuals don’t matter , the job But, does does Very little individual discretion; fulfill Very functions based on written policies and procedures procedures Can become almost impervious to Can outside control due to expertise of organization and socialization of staff 23 Discussion questions Discussion 24 For next class For MIDTERM!!!!!! (chapters 1-8, 11) Work on your bill analysis, due JULY Work 29 25 ...
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