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class 4 - May 18

class 4 - May 18 - May 18 May The policy process 1 The...

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Unformatted text preview: May 18 May The policy process 1 The policy process The Traditional institutional view - public Traditional policy is by actions of government institutions institutions Most policy is made by legislative branch Most through passage of laws and budget through Policy is also made by executive branch Policy through executive orders, agency rules through Policy can also be made by judicial branch Policy through court orders– desegregation, Miranda rights, rulings that laws are 2 unconstitutional Policy cycle Policy Policy is made through series of stages Agenda setting Problem definition Selection of alternatives Policy choice Policy design Policy implementation Policy evaluation Policy change 3 Agenda setting Agenda The selection of what problems The government will address government There are lots of issues. The decision on There whether government will address an issue is a political choice is There is lots of competition over what will There be identified as a problem be • Drunk driving, estate tax, climate change 4 Problem definition Problem Once an issue is accepted as a problem, Once there is competition over how to define it there the choice of definition affects the choice of what the solutions will be accepted solutions So, is it ‘global warning’ or ‘climate change’? Is it the need for alternative energy, or need to Is ‘drill here, drill now’? ‘drill Is it a ‘cycle of dependency’ or ‘economic Is inequality’? inequality’? This is a critical stage and inherently This political. political. 5 Selection of alternatives Selection What alternatives will be accepted as What potential solutions to a policy problem is also political is Simon – there is a ‘zone of acceptance’ Simon that limits the alternatives that will be considered. This zone is controlled by tradition, values, and elites Rational decision-making includes the Rational collection of information on advantages and disadvantages of each 6 Decision making Decision The formal process whereby the choice The among policy alternatives is made and legitimatized Generally a formal decision by a political Generally body (legislature, chief executive, etc. ) body Often is a highly political process. A Often classical definition of politics is ‘the authoritative allocation of values’ authoritative 7 Policy design Policy The process of filling in the details of the The policy decision policy Most laws are pretty vague statement of Most policy intent. Many details of how the policy how is to be carried out, including program goals and objectives, must be supplied by agencies and This is done by promulgating rules, policies, This procedures, etc. procedures, Can be highly political, as these details can Can involve huge costs; can also subvert intent of law law 8 Implementation Implementation The process of carrying out the The program program Implementation can determine whether a Implementation policy is successful policy • Do the outcomes of the program resemble the Do original intent of the crafters? original • As number of participants increases, so does As likelihood of program implementation not aligning with original intent. aligning 9 Evaluation The determination of whether a The program is achieving its intended objectives or needs to be modified objectives Is it reaching intended targets? Is it having intended effect? Are administrators meeting standards of Are operation? operation? Is it cost effective? Is 10 Program Termination Program What happens to a program once What problems are solved? problems In government, it is far easier to In continue getting resources, than to terminate a program. terminate 11 Policy Cycle Clean, elegant way to illustrate policy Clean, process, but not perfect! process, Reality is not a tidy, orderly, and Reality rational as the models suggest. rational Phases happen together, out of order, Phases and chaotically Power levels and information impact Power the process. the 12 Policy change Policy When and why does it occur? When Problems indentified, strong public outcry, Problems politics politics What does it look like? There are many factors that impede policy There change change Design of government makes policy change hard Design – must pass two legislative chambers, be approved by chief executive, be viewed as constitutional by courts constitutional Policies and programs are guarded by supporters Policies and beneficiaries 13 Policy change Policy Incrementalism– policy evolves slowly Incrementalism– and is complex – too much so for humans. humans. American democratic system designed to American balance competing interests and safeguard individual rights. safeguard Efficiency not a primary focus. This is Efficiency particularly true in budget decisions particularly Policy subsystems play a role – Policy interest groups, experts, advocates interest These emphasize stability of process 14 Policy change Policy John Kingdon’s policy streams model John emphasizes randomness and unpredictability unpredictability Why do some issues come become issues Why while others do not? while Garbage Can Model identifies Garbage problems, policies and politics of decision making decision These come together – limited window of These opportunity. 15 Policy change Policy Rational Choice Prisoner’s Dilemma decision-making built on use of incentives and decision-making rules rules desire to maximize self interests 2 decision points, limited information exchange, decision and precise outcomes and Ex – negotiating the sale of a car Institutional Rational Choice Actions/decisions are constrained by those made Actions/decisions at levels above and resources available at Sophisticated view of policy change, highly Sophisticated 16 influenced by factors Policy change Policy Advocacy Coalition Framework Focus is on political subsystems rather than Focus government entities government Emphasis on core values and beliefs that drive Emphasis coalitions (interest groups) coalitions Groups tend to include members from both in and Groups out of government out Enjoy great stability Impacted and constrained by • Available resources • Degree of consensus needed for action 17 Policy change Policy Policy Paradox Political Science and PA try to rationalize the Political policy process policy This is impossible for public organizations “Politics looks messy, foolish, erratic..” Three elements • Goals – which are often in conflict Goals • Problems – the discrepancy • Policy solutions – ongoing strategies for collective Policy purpose purpose Emphasizes the primary role of politics in Emphasizes defining and solving policy problems defining 18 Implementation Implementation Carrying out the policies Outcomes don’t always resemble original intent Even with all the right ingredients – policies can Even fail. Why? fail. Too many players, definitions of success, Too agendas, goals and preferences agendas, What can you do? Plan early Be ready for unforeseen problems, group Be decision making decision Keep it simple Change organizational culture Be accountable 19 Evaluation Evaluation What is happening to whom and at what cost? This is the feedback loop to policy making and This implementation implementation Methods of evaluation Survey research, interviews, observation, cost benefit/ efficiency analysis Often controversial – recommendations shelved Be careful – determine key stakeholders and real Be purpose of evaluation before beginning project purpose 20 Evaluation Evaluation Common approaches/assessments Needs assessment – identify problems Program theory assessment – how program attains Program goals and approach used to get there goals Process evaluations – how well is the program Process operating (similar to implementation) operating Impact assessment – determine extent a program Impact accomplished intended outcome accomplished Efficiency assessment – relationship of costs to Efficiency program outcomes program It’s an art! 21 What you see isn’t always what you get you It can be difficult to really figure out It why a policy choice is made why It is a highly political process It is not a highly rationale process • Values are more important that facts • There is a lot of ‘spin’ and data is often used to There justify a decision made for other reasons (the ‘policy analysis paradox’) ‘policy 22 What this means for PA What Your job will be political (with apologies to Your Wilson) Wilson) You will need to fill in blanks for new You programs and laws programs You will need to negotiate with interest You groups groups You will need to maintain political support (or You you may be defined as ‘the problem’) you You will take some unfair shots These factors get more important the higher These you rise in an organization you Life isn’t always fair 23 Discussion questions Discussion 24 For next class For QUIZ #2 – Chapters 5, 6 and 11 Read chapters 7 and 8 Respond to discussion questions Work on your bill analysis 25 ...
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