class 6 - May 25

class 6 - May 25 - May 25 May Motivation, decision-making,...

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Unformatted text preview: May 25 May Motivation, decision-making, Motivation, and organizational culture and Leadership Fundamental questions Fundamental How do you motivate the public How workforce? workforce? How can management decisions How best be made? best How can you change How organizational culture? 2 Motivation Motivation Psychological process that directs Psychological behavior behavior A key factor in individual performance key Other factors include skill , ability, Other knowledge and organizational structure knowledge Two types of motivation incentives Two Extrinsic rewards – money, benefits, Extrinsic recognition, etc. recognition, Intrinsic rewards – based on personal Intrinsic satisfaction, ‘doing something important’, ‘making a difference’ ‘making 3 Extrinsic rewards Extrinsic System rewards – beginning pay and System benefit levels that help attract and retain staff staff Individual rewards – raises, bonuses, etc. Individual that are based on individual performance Group awards – raises, bonuses, etc. that Group are based on group achievements are Value as motivators depends on whether Value they are viewed as fair and are actually desired desired 4 Intrinsic rewards Intrinsic Related to Related level of personal satisfaction and self-esteem level established with the job established Organization member’s self-identification with Organization the organization the Not every employee will respond in the Not same way same Greater commitment and dedication to Greater goals of organization = greater satisfaction from job satisfaction 5 Public versus private Public Research shows that public employees Research value different things than private sector employees sector Less motivated by extrinsic rewards ($) More motivated by intrinsic rewards – More doing good, making a difference doing Theories of motivation Theories Early management theory assumed that Early people were primarily motivated by extrinsic rewards extrinsic Assumed that people worked primarily to Assumed get money get Scientific management stressed piecework Scientific to tie individual pay to performance to Was based on industrial organizations Was (think uneducated immigrants shoveling coal) coal) Human relations movement Human Hawthorne experiments and other Hawthorne research showed that this perspective wasn’t valid wasn’t Group influences were found to be Group important (and could override individual performance) performance) People were often motivated by nonmonetary factors So, what were they? 8 Maslow hierarchy of needs Maslow People are motivated by different levels of People needs; once one is satisfied higher needs are important are Survival goods (food , water, clothing) Safety and security Social interaction (community and personal) Self-esteem (personal and recognition) Self actualization (be all you can be) Implication – different organizational Implication motivations are needed for different people 9 Argyris – mature personality Argyris Held that bureaucracies typically Held conflict with human needs because they demand conformity and routine Treat employees as children rather than Treat adults adults Managers should treat employees as Managers adults adults Give them responsibility and autonomy, Give encourage creativity and growth encourage Job expansion – as employees master Job more skills, let them do more things more Theory X and Y Theory McGregor contrasted management McGregor approaches Theory X – people are fundamentally lazy Theory and lack ambition, want to be told what to do, and crave security, and put their needs ahead of the organization Management’s job is thus to provide direct Management’s incentives, specify exactly what to, monitor them closely to make sure they do what they are told, and threaten them if they aren’t doing it right they Theory Y Theory More complete and accurate view of More human personality. human Assumes people are essentially Assumes creative, want to work, respond better to rewards than threats, and want to do well and grow professionally well Management’s job is to create an Management’s organization that supports employees to be productive and creative to Management must be tolerant of risk Management and failure as the price of creativity and Herzberg – hygienic and motivating factors Hygienic factors are extrinsic, and are Hygienic satisfiers – once met they have limited motivating value motivating Thus, once working conditions and pay Thus, are considered acceptable, they have limited ability to motivate additional performance (but can be dissatisfiers if not present) not Motivating factors are intrinsic – Motivating opportunities to grow and advance 13 Motivation and Goal setting Motivation Motivation theories include the idea that Motivation individuals are rational and goal-directed. individuals Goals drive behavior – they set objective Goals standards to measure performance. Standards are linked to rewards and Standards incentive systems. incentive Goal setting Goal Asserts that more effective to set goals Asserts than try to make work more fulfilling than Management’s job is to set challenging but Management’s achievable goals for both individuals and teams Managers should provide regular feedback to Managers enable workers to assess progress Tends to work best for low-level skills (data Tends input) that are easier to measure in short term Behavior approach – give positive Behavior reinforcement for good behavior, negative consequences for bad behavior Behavioral Approach Behavioral Rooted in classical conditioning theory – Rooted B.F. Skinner B.F. Most famous example – Pavlov’s dog Reinforcement theory – engage in behaviors Reinforcement when rewarded when • • Positive – emphasizes material rewards Negative – removal of negative consequences Punishment ineffective • Learn to avoid punishment, not desired behavior • Makes people angry and resentful Provides solutions for managers – but can Provides practically and ethically difficult. practically Tribal leadership Tribal Holds that people and organizations Holds are in one of five levels are “Life sucks” – alienation Life “My life sucks” – depressed, think system My doesn’t work for them doesn’t “I’m great/you aren’t” – lone wolf/star “We are great” – highly effective team “Life is wonderful” – highly effective team Life working with other teams working The task of management is to help The people move up levels people Organizational Decision making Organizational Graham Allison’s decision-making Graham models models Rational – single authoritative decision Rational maker and decisions made in orderly, rational manner rational Organizational Process – involves many Organizational groups groups Governmental politics – result from Governmental process involving competing forces process 18 Organizational Decision making Organizational Rational model - typically associated with Rational traditional bureaucracies traditional Four major elements Identify goals and objectives Identify all possible alternatives Evaluate each alternatives against the criteria Evaluate established in first step Choose the alternative that best meets the Choose criteria Critiques Weak in accurately attributing causes and Weak predicting effects predicting Human intellectual capacity and available Human information are limited information 19 Organizational Decision making Organizational Incremental model – proposed by Lindblom Incremental as alternative to Rational Model as Science of ‘muddling through’ Many groups are involved Many Decisions emerge as process of bargaining Decisions and compromise and ‘muddling through’ articulates the political muddling and social values and desire for free market and 20 Organizational Decision making Organizational Mixing Scanning – elements of rational and Mixing incremental models incremental Rational model too utopian because of emphasis Rational on comprehensive decision making on Incremental model too flawed because overlooks Incremental opportunity for innovation opportunity Combines ‘higher order, fundamental Combines decision making with lower order incremental decision making’ incremental Big picture of rational model and meaningful Big context of incremental model context 21 So, how are decisions made? So, Lindbloom – most decisions are Lindbloom incremental, based on compromises incremental, Satisfycing – muddling through , picking Satisfycing an alternative that seems good enough an In budgeting, most decisions are based In mostly on incremental changes from prior year’s budget – deciding how to allocate new resources or where to cut when resources are inadequate resources Mixed scanning – a few fundamental Mixed decisions are made, but most are then incremental changes from that (until a new fundamental choice must be 22 Group decision-making Group What are the factors that contribute to What more effective group decisions? more What are the major types of group What decision-making techniques? decision-making 23 Group decision-making Group Decision making in groups has advantages Decision and disadvantages and Is typically slower due to need to gain consensus But provides more perspectives and information Effectiveness depends on Effectiveness Group identity – who is in group Group diversity – expands range of info, Group experiences and skills experiences Group size – 5-12 best Group process – consensus better but Group slower slower 24 Group Decision-Making Techniques Can be effective but has some Can challenges challenges More assertive members often have More greater influence over group greater Groupthink - members strongly identify Groupthink with group and isolate themselves from negative criticism and fail to exercise rational decision making rational Abilene Paradox – go along with bad ideas Abilene because don’t want to be left out because Group Decision-Making Techniques Ways to overcome these challenges Delphi method – individual members Delphi provide input that is summarized and then provided back to members (no group meeting) – can get lots of input but slow meeting) Nominal group technique – uses Nominal participatory, face to face meeting, but utilizes brainstorming techniques first, and then group analysis then Organizational culture Organizational Can have a huge impact on organizational Can performance performance Large organizations frequently have multiple Large cultures, each with its own values, norms, and symbols (think high school) and Informal communication is often more Informal powerful than formal communication powerful Changing organizational culture is difficult, Changing takes a long time, but can have major impacts impacts Requires consistent leadership, communication, Requires and feedback and Organizational culture Organizational Organizational myths/legends – stories Organizational passed down from one ‘generation’ to the next next Group norms – unwritten rules that drive Group behaviors related to interpersonal relations, client interactions, dress codes client Taboos – the things that aren’t permitted; Taboos outline the boundaries of acceptable behavior behavior Language – every culture has one Organizational culture Organizational Can have a huge impact on organizational Can performance performance Large organizations frequently have multiple Large cultures, each with its own values, norms, and symbols (think high school) and Informal communication is often more Informal powerful than formal communication powerful Changing organizational culture is difficult, Changing takes a long time, but can have major impacts impacts Requires consistent leadership, communication, Requires and feedback and Organizational Change Organizational Culture is a fundamental element – change is Culture sometimes necessary and often difficult sometimes Change may require Sweeping change can have negative Sweeping consequences consequences Radical steps – wholesale staff change Immediate reaction often negative – creates Immediate uncertainty, stress, change in routine uncertainty, Requires strong leadership, adequate Requires resources, communication and feedback to be successful be Organizational development Organizational Model for organizational change Top-down strategy designed to increase Top-down organizational effectiveness and health organizational Works to overcome opposition to change Works (self-interest, fear of unknown, distrust of management, fear of failure, loss of status) management, Opposition - self-interest, fear of Opposition unknown, mistrust of management motives, fear of failure, loss of status motives, Forces favoring change - environmental Forces factors, socioeconomic/political changes, internal forces Total Quality Management Rooted in classical management theory Seeks continual process improvements Involves employees in process through Involves quality circles and self-directed teams quality Measures outputs and outcomes Seeks to reduce errors (e.g., manufacturing Seeks defects or unhappy customers) and speed processes by streamlining processes E.g., - Toyota, every person on assembly line E.g., can stop line to fix a problem Challenge in public sector is that process Challenge often matters Total Quality Management Interest has grown steadily in public Interest sector Four reasons implementation in Four government hindered government Reinventing government movement because Reinventing of interest in customer-service approach and performance measures performance Defining the customer Services vs products Focus on inputs and processes Government culture Ideology can be coercive – troubling to Ideology public sector. public Leadership Leadership 34 Leadership Leadership Key question – how do you lead Key in the public sector? public Leadership is different from Leadership management – involves establishing priorities and plans, directing systems, and dealing with outside world versus internal organizing and coordinating internal 35 Leadership in the Public Sector Historically, public servants have been Historically, thought of as wasteful and inefficient. thought 9/11 changed that! Public environment often Is unstable and uncertain Lacks definitive answers to problems Leaders must navigate through Leaders ambiguity and multiple/competing perspectives. perspectives. 36 Leadership is needed to.. Develop clear visions Work across constituencies Recognize social and ethical values Create vibrant organizational networks Enhance organizational performance Maintain democratic (not the political Maintain type) values type) 37 Leadership vs Management Similarities – they both involve coordination Direction Control Monitoring planning Different in application 38 Management Attributes Management Primarily concerned with running Primarily everyday operations – provides stability through routine through Characteristics (according to G. Allison) Establish objectives/priorities Devise operational plans Staffing Direct personnel and management system Control performance Deal with external units, independent Deal organizations, media, public organizations, 39 Leadership Attributes Leadership Incorporates values, motivation, Incorporates organizational culture, change and vision into framework into Characteristics (according to M.P. Follett) Instills values in organization Builds/maintains sense of teamwork Motivates/inspires employees Provides clearly defined vision/purpose Helps forward Helps movement/advancement/growth of employees movement/advancement/growth 40 Produces lasting change/innovation Importance of both Importance Equal partners in overall organizational Equal scheme and structure scheme Both are primary pieces to the puzzle In times of reform, change or crisis – you In need leadership need In times of relative calm – you need the In efficiency and routinization of management management 41 Levels of Leadership Levels Executive Leadership Managers Street Level Bureaucrats Important that these work together to Important provide a coherent operational system. provide 42 At executive level At Leadership is partly political – setting Leadership strategic directions, building coalitions, maintaining key relationships with external groups Need to have enough technical Need knowledge to be credible, but don’t have to be an expert have Requires combination of practical, Requires personal, and political skills. personal, 43 Two types of leadership authority authority Positional authority – derives from Positional position – the formal powers and responsibilities assigned to the job (e.g., managing budget, authority to hire and fire) hire Personal authority – derives from Personal individual’s charisma, expertise, and relationships Can have one without the other (most Can influential person in organization may not be at top of organizational chart) not 44 Formal Authority or Leadership? Formal Important not to confuse the two! Can have leadership without formal Can authority – this informal status is important too! important Advantages more flexibility and maneuverability Closer to what employees ‘really think’ Concentrate on issues you see – may Concentrate differ from issue organization sees differ 45 At middle management level At Provide direction and motivation Deal less with external world, but must Deal translate directives from above to things that can be implemented at your level (can be caught in the middle) level Also have positional and personal Also authority authority Greater emphasis on formal controls Must motivate, guide, teach staff 46 At street level At Must make organization work at service Must delivery level delivery Must negotiate directly with outside Must world (at micro level) world Have process discretion (choice among Have problem solving approaches and interpretation of rules) interpretation Have outcome discretion (choice Have among options when making choices) among 47 At street level At Discretionary Authority Process discretion – taken when choosing Process the best problem-solving method the Outcome discretion – taken when Outcome choosing a particular result Example: Police Officer can either write you a ticket Police or give you a warning. or Results are often shaped by external Results pressures pressures 48 Themes of Leadership in PA Themes Leadership is a process intended to fill a Leadership purpose for the organization. purpose Leaders operate in a shared power Leaders environment where diversity and ambiguity threaten the common purpose. ambiguity Public sector leadership requires Public collaboration – and lots of it!!! collaboration So leadership is.. The process of moving a group or The organization toward a mutually defined goal organization 49 Leadership Traits Leadership Early research sought to identify the ‘one Early best way’ for leaders best Trait approach – sought to identify Trait characteristics that led to success characteristics e.g., vitality, decisiveness, persuasiveness, e.g., responsibility, intelligence, charisma But, this is pretty general Situational approach – need to identify Situational leadership traits that fit specific situations (e.g., you need different qualities to succeed in different environments) succeed 50 Leadership Traits Leadership Limitations Lack of consensus about which traits directly Lack define leadership ability – very subjective define Provided 3 key conclusions to field Traits help delineate leaders from others Certain traits are beneficial in certain Certain situations situations These traits dominate in situations where These leaders are open to approach they use leaders 51 Leadership behaviors Leadership is more than just traits! Two major leadership styles Two Task-oriented– focus on achieving specific focus goals (e.g., making plan and telling subordinates what tasks to do to achieve plan) Person-oriented–focused on relationships –focused with subordinates (e.g., making plan and then working with staff to determine how to allocate tasks) Empowers employees 52 Leadership styles Leadership Autocratic – the boss, tells people what to do, demands it be done that way. Assumes people need to be told what to do do Democratic – emphasizes group achievement (generally produces best results and workforce satisfaction). Assumes people want to have flexibility Assumes Laissez faire – provide limited guidance, want staff to work out how to achieve goal. Assumes people will excel if left 53 Contingency theory Contingency Holds that successful leadership style is Holds relative to the situation relative Leader-member relationship – what level of Leader-member staff support does the leader have? Task structure – how complicated is the job? Position power – how much formal authority Position does the leader have? Task oriented leaders to best in high Task structured and highly chaotic environments, while more relationship oriented leaders do best in middle oriented 54 Contingency theory Contingency Benefits and Limitations Benefits • broadens the scope of leadership theory • combines character traits and situational factors • more than one good way Limitations • implies organizations should construct jobs to implies match leadership styles match Difficult in public organizations • Leaders successful at effectiveness and efficiency Leaders not necessarily best in public/nonprofit sectors not 55 Path-goal theory Path-goal Effective leadership depends on the Effective nature of the environment, the task to be done, the leader, and the followers done, Leaders need to understand followers’ Leaders needs and structure work to meet those needs needs In bureaucratic or high stress In environments leaders need to be supportive to provide balance supportive In ambiguous environments, leaders need In 56 to be more directive Path-goal theory Path-goal Contributions Provides a detailed look at complex nature of Provides work environments and impact these factors have on employees have Limitations Inconclusive results – assumptions restrict Inconclusive scope of application scope • Assumes people behave rationally – already know Assumes we don’t! we 57 Leader-member exchange Leader-member Leaders need to establish effective personal Leaders relationships with their subordinates There is ongoing give and take between There leaders and subordinates – their relationship is a series of exchanges is Thus, a transactional leader uses rewards Thus, and self-interest as motivation for employees Offers little guidance on how build highquality relationships. 58 Transformational leadership Transformational Focuses on leaders ability to motivate staff Focuses and provide a clear vision of the future and Establish organizational value systems that Establish drive behavior toward goals drive Can generate high level of commitment to the Can greater cause among followers greater Thus transforms both staff and the Thus organization organization Downside – such leaders are often flawed Downside (Hitler, Stalin, bin Laden) (Hitler, Folks who want power often shouldn’t have it 59 Gender and leadership Gender Traditional leadership theory and positions Traditional tended to focus on traditionally masculine concepts (strong, decisive, etc.) concepts However, much modern leadership theory However, stresses importance of communication and negotiation, which are more traditionally feminine concepts feminine Women are now more than half of workforce Women and are increasingly in leadership roles and 60 Leadership in public sector Leadership Leadership is more difficult in the public Leadership sector – much more transparency, accountability, and process requirements accountability, Public sector has a very difficult time Public dealing with risk, so entrepreneurial leadership is challenging Must negotiate with wide range of Must stakeholders Both entrepreneurialism and Both conservatorship is needed – transform yet retain core values 61 Entrepreneurial Leadership Entrepreneurial Classic PA view – bureaucracy that simply Classic worked to implement plans worked Entrepreneurialism encourages Entrepreneurialism leadership based on initiative, innovation and vision and Become change agents (competition, selfinterest, resource maximization) – interest, contradicts classic PA ideas contradicts Proponents say purges organization of Proponents complacent tendencies and creates 62 Conservatorship Conservatorship Leaders work to conserve institutional Leaders values and protect them from corruption or erosion or This desire to protect does not allow for This risk-taking behaviors found in public sector sector Limitations Unresponsive to innovation Discretionary authority constrained Stifles the ability to change 63 Discussion questions Discussion Up Next Monday – no class Wednesday – MIDTERM (ch. 1-11) Discussion questions – Each student Discussion posts 2 questions to any of our 3 guest speakers. speakers. ...
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