Week 1 - Class notes - Jan 6

Week 1 - Class notes - Jan 6 - BMS 290-02 Class Schedule...

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Unformatted text preview: BMS 290-02 Class Schedule Date Date 1/6 1/6 1/8 1/13 Topic Assigned reading (Martini) Assigned Intro, terms chapt. 1 (p 2­11; 20­46) Cells and Membrane Proteins chapt. 3 (p 49­62) Membrane Dynamics chapt. 3 (p 68­75) The Nervous system chapt. 4 (p 107­108); chapt. 11 (p 285­290) 1/13 Resting Membrane potential chapt. 3 (p 94­95) chapt 11 (p 295­299) 1/15 Graded Membrane potentials chapt. 11 (p 299­302) 1/15 Action potentials chapt. 11 (p 302­308) 1/20 Synapses chapt. 11 (p 308­315) 1/29 Exam 1 _Anatomy _Anatomy “the study of the structure of a living the organism” organism” Without knowledge of the structure of the body and Without cell structure, this course will be much more difficult difficult Physiology_ Physiology_ “the branch of knowledge which studies how the structures of a living organism function in structures function order to maintain life” order Homeostasis Homeostasis “The process of maintaining a constant internal The environment within an organism” environment (body temperature, heart rate, blood glucose levels, etc..) Normal Normal range range Set point time Example of “_____________”: human temperature control This demonstrates a “negative feedback” control loop Organization of the Human body Organization • Organism (Homo sapien) • _____________ – Integumentary, digestive, nervous, muscular, Integumentary, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, urinary, reproductive reproductive • __________ – Heart, lung, pancreas, stomach, brain, etc…. Organization of the Human body • ___________________ (4 major types) – Connective, muscle, nervous, epithelium • ______________ – The most basic functional unit of any The multicellular organism multicellular • Molecules • Atoms Organ: organs contain various tissue types Organ: Tissue level: tissues are comprised of various cell types Cells: comprised of many macromolecular complexes Complex proteins: comprised of atoms Subcellular structure and “compartments” cilia Cytoplasm mitochondrion Rough ER nucleus membrane microvilli Secretory vesicles Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus cytoskeleton Fig. 3-1 Table 3-1 • Cellular compartments – – – – – – – – – membrane nucleus rough endoplasmic reticulum smooth endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus secretory (or other vesicles; i.e. lysosomes) Mitochondria cytoskeleton Cilia/microvilli – Where does “physiology” occur? • Cell membrane (plasmalemma, plasma membrane) – What is the function of the cell membrane? • Interface between inside the cell and outside the cell – metabolite exchange • Structural support • Physical barrier General structure of the plasma membrane Fluid mosaic model, Singer and Nicolson, 1972; Fig. 3-2, Martini Components of the plasma membrane membrane 1) Phospholipid bilayer – Phospholipid molecules contain Phospholipid • • • hydrophilic, polar “head” hydrophobic, non-polar tail See Fig. 2-17 (Martini) 2) Cholesterol and other lipids – glycolipids Structure of phospholipids and glycolipids Martini, Fig. 2-17a,b Martini, Components of the plasma membrane membrane 1) Phospholipid bilayer 2) Cholesterol and other lipids – glycolipids 1) Proteins – What are proteins? Proteins are a linear chain of amino acids Proteins •amino acids differ by side chains •“primary structure” of protein “Secondary structure” of proteins: determined by interactions between adjacent amino acid residues Martini, Fig. 2-20b Fig. Protein “Tertiary” structure •interactions between regions of secondary structure •disulfide bonds •hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions formed Martini, Martini, Fig. 2-20c Fig. Membrane Proteins: proteins associated w/membranes Membrane 1) Peripheral membrane protein Peripheral bound to the inner or outer surface of membranes Membrane proteins Membrane 2) Integral membrane protein • normally spans membrane normally • “transmembrane” protein extracellular intracellular Integral membrane proteins can be classified according to function according a) Gated ion Channels “gated” = opening/closing “gated” by voltage change (Na , K , Ca channels) “gated” by chemical ligand (acetylcholine receptor) gated” AC binds and it opens up AC extracellular intracellular b) Ion Channel proteins_ b) “Non-gated”-open always “leakage channels” (Cl channel, K channel,etc.) extracellular intracellular Integral membrane protein types Integral c) Carrier (transport) Proteins c) • transport solutes across membranes (in either direction) direction) ‘ATP dependent’ ATP Na -K exchange protein Na ‘ATP independent’ neurotransmitter transporters neurotransmitter extracellular intracellular Integral membrane protein types Integral d) Receptor Proteins d) – bind to ligands, causes cells to respond bind • Insulin, antigen, glucose, neurotransmitter Insulin, extracellular intracellular Integral membrane protein types Integral e) Enzymes (accelerate, lower activation e) energy.etc) energy.etc) • Catalyze intracellular or extracellular reactions • example: Peptidases extracellular intracellular Integral membrane protein types Integral f) Anchoring Proteins • attach cell membrane to structures attach cytoskeleton cytoskeleton • attach cell membrane to other membranes attach intercalated discs (allows one cardiac muscle cell to join to another) cell extracellular intracellular Membrane components: carbohydrates carbohydrates • Carbohydrates (sugar) – fructose, glucose, galactose (monossaccharides) – sucrose, maltose, lactose (disaccharides) sucrose, (disaccharides) – chitin, glycogen, cellulose, starch, dextrin chitin, (polysaccarides) (polysaccarides) • Glycolipids – Carbohydrate (sugar) groups bound to membrane lipids • Glycoproteins – Carbohydrate (sugar) groups bound to membrane Carbohydrate proteins (extracellular side) proteins • glycoproteins and glycolipids function to: – orient and anchor membrane proteins – serve as a type of recognition particle • ABO blood groups determined by ABO oligosaccharides on surface of RBC oligosaccharides ...
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