The_Abdomen2 - The Abdomen 05/29/11 1 Anatomy Musculature...

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Unformatted text preview: The Abdomen 05/29/11 1 Anatomy Musculature – Rectus Abdominis – External Oblique (fibers run towards the External midline) midline) – Internal Oblique – Transverse Abdominis (perpendicular to the Transverse ground) ground) 05/29/11 2 Abdominal Viscera Kidneys – on each side of spine, approx Kidneys center of back center Spleen – largest lymphatic organ in the Spleen body, under diaphragm on the left side behind 9,10,11 ribs. Main fuctions: behind » Reservoir of RBC’s » Regulator of RBC’s » Destroyer of innefective RBC’s » Produces Anti-bodies » Produces Lymphocytes Stomach 05/29/11 3 History History – Meds?, pain when using bathroom, fever, Meds?, nausea..etc nausea..etc – To see if its an organ issue or a musculature To issue issue PO R S- too much gurgling or to little is an issue 05/29/11 4 Abdominal Injury Data 10% of sports injuries Can require long recovery periods Can be life threatening 05/29/11 5 Injuries to Abdominal Wall Contusions – Rectus abdominus can be very disabling, severe Rectus blow can cause hematoma, pressure from hemorrhage can cause pain and tightness hemorrhage – Tx: cold pack, compression wrap, look for Tx: signs and symptoms of an internal injury signs – Shock is usually a symptom of an internal issue 05/29/11 6 Abdominal Wall Injuries cont… Abdominal Muscle Strains – Mechanism – sudden twisting of trunk, reaching overhead reaching – Signs and symptoms – severe pain, hematoma – Treatment – ice, compression wrap Hernia – The protrusion of abdominal viscera through a The portion of the abdominal wall portion – Can be congenital (can be born with it) or Can acquired (through straining) acquired 05/29/11 7 Hernias Acquired Hernia – occurs when natural weakness is further aggravated by either a strain or direct blow strain •Signs and symptoms? Feel a bulge Feel It may protrude or it may stay out It What type of activities may cause a hernia??? Inguinal hernias – occur in groin area, most prevalent in men (where your hip is , the illiac to the pubic bone) (femoral more 8 05/29/11 typical of females) typical Intra-abdominal conditions Stitch in the side – cramp like pain that develops on either the L or R costal angle during hard physical activity hard Cause??? Treatment – Immediate care, relaxation of spasm – Stretch arm on affected side as high as possible – Flex trunk forward 05/29/11 9 Appendicitis Etiology: Inflammation of the vermiform appendix appendix Can be chronic or acute Can chronic acute Variety of causes: – Fecal obstruction – Lymph swelling – Carcinoid tumor Highest incidence is in ages 15-25 Highest ages 05/29/11 10 Appendicitis cont… Appendicitis Signs and symptoms: ☺What signs and symptoms might someone with What Appendicitis present with? » » » Sever pain (main key factor) Rebound tender ness (Mc Burny’s point) naseated ☺What other condition are these signs and What symptom similar to? symptom Treatment: – Refer to physician, usually surgery 05/29/11 This condition can be life threatening – 11 Blow to the Solar Plexus Produces transitory paralysis of the diaphragm Also known as “wind knocked out” S&S: – Respirations stop – When unable to inhale – hysteria due to fear Treatment: – – – 05/29/11 1. 2. 3. Help athlete stay calm Loosen belt and clothing around abdomen Encourage short inspirations, long expirations 12 Injury to spleen Organ most often injured by blunt trauma, Organ but still relatively uncommon but Mechanism: – – Fall or direct blow to ULQ of abdomen Splenomegally present in 50% of cases What role does mononucleosis play??? – Inflames and splints itself (forms a hemotoma Inflames around 05/29/11 around itself) 13 Spleen cont… Signs and symptoms: – – – – History of severe blow to abdomen Possible signs of shock Abdominal rigidity Nausea and vomiting – Reflex pain referred to as………………..rebound tenderness, or pain refer somewhere else (left shoulder) tenderness, Complications: (important…..) Complications: (important…..) – Danger: spleen’s ability to splint itself. A loose Danger: hematoma forms and if jarred loose may lead to delayed hemorrhaging. delayed – This can occur days to weeks after injury – possibly This 05/29/11 leading to death leading 14 Liver contusion Injuries to liver rank 2nd among organs due to blunt trauma, relatively infrequent in sports sports Mechanism – Hard blow to RUQ of abdomen on the right Hard side of the rib cage side – Ability to tear or contuse, especially if enlarged Ability due to hepatitis due What may lead to Hepatitis???? HEP B, C 05/29/11 15 Liver cont… Signs and symptoms: – May have hemorrhage and shock – May have referred pain just below the R May scapula, R shoulder and substernal area and occasionally the Anterior L side of chest occasionally Treatment: – Refer to physician – Possible surgery 05/29/11 16 Injuries to the Genitourinary Injuries System System Kidney Contusion ( in more high contact sports , Kidney football, hockey) football, – Mechanism – usually external force applied to the back of the athlete of – Signs and symptoms – » » » » » Shock Nausea, vomiting Rigidity of back muscles Hematuria (blood in urine) May have referred pain to costovertebral angle – posteriorly May and may radiate around trunk to lower abdomen and Feels like bad low back pain – Treatment05/29/11 » Refer to physician, if hematuria, possible surgery Refer hematuria 17 Reproductive Organ Injuries Scrotal contusion (direct blow to the scrotum) – Mechanism » Direct blow – Signs and symptoms » » » » » Very painful Nausea Hemorrhage Fluid effusion spasm – Treatment » » » 05/29/11 Squat and pick em up and drop em) Athlete on back, flex thighs to chest, cold pack If after 15-20 minutes not better, refer to physician 18 Immediate Referral Severe abdominal pain Signs of an acute abdomen Signs of shock Blood in the urine or stool Superficial protrusion of tissue Fever Radiating or referred pain Any doubt on the severity of the injury 05/29/11 19 ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/29/2011 for the course PED 217 taught by Professor Bartz during the Spring '08 term at Grand Valley State.

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