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Chapters23 Handouts - Today’s Objectives Today’s Review...

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Unformatted text preview: Today’s Objectives Today’s Review from last time? Exam #1: February 3rd – – – – Will review some next time, use your notes as a study guide Chapters 1, 2, 30, 20, 21, 24, 23 Format: 30 Multiple Choice; 5 Short Answer Focus your studying more on APPLICATION than on memorizing Focus alone…Don’t focus as much on definitions. More app (?)’s than anything else anything Chapter 23: Behavior Modification Designs – – – – – – Baselines Internal validity ABAB Designs Multiple Baselines Changing Criterion Alternating Treatments Any questions? Video from last time Video What aspects of the video were What intriguing/interesting/surprising? intriguing/interesting/surprising? How does the video fit with our discussion How last week about ethical behavior? last Where we go from here… Where We have talked about data, how to collect it We and what types of data we can collect. and In addition to the data and a good In operational definition of the behavior, we also have to think about the design of the program program Different designs are appropriate for Different different types of goals and behaviors different Experimental Designs Experimental Goals of B-mod programs? – To change behavior Want to be able to say that the behavior change was due to the treatment – Internal validity (that we can say with a high level of confidence that the change in behavior was due to the treatment and the treatment alone) Treatment= independent variable (variable manipulated) Behavior= dependent variable Experimental Designs Experimental ABAB Design (reversal) ABAB – A= Baseline; B= treatment phase Alternate between Baseline and Treatment Alternate phas phas Why would you want to return to baseline? – To see if the inervention was what actually To caused the change caused Switching from baseline to treatment treatment When should you switch from baseline to When treatment? treatment? – It depends – Collect enough data to show stability – Do not switch if data is changing in the desired Do direction direction – Caveat: If behavior is dangerous or selfinjurious, switch as soon as possible ABAB Design Limitations (journal of applied behavior Sometimes, it is unethical to reverse to Sometimes, baseline after the treatment has been implemented implemented Sometimes, it is impossible to revert back to Sometimes, baseline baseline Natural contingencies in environment: social Natural reinforcement reinforcement Learning a skil (ex: riding a bike, potty Learning Multiple Baseline Designs Multiple Do not have to do reversal Do Multiple baseline across behaviors – twO BEHAVIORS ACROSS BEHAVIORS – 2 BEHAVIORS AT ONE TIME – Behaviors must be relative Multiple Baseline Designs Multiple Multiple Baseline Design Multiple – Multiple baseline across situations Same behavior, but across different settings Multiple baseline across behaviors – Same person but different topography Multiple baseline across individuals – Same behavior but indifferent people. Experimental Designs Experimental Changing Criterion – Successively changing the criterion or Successively reinforcement reinforcement – If the behavior changes with the criterion, we can If assume that the treatment was responsible for the change change Alternating Treatments Design (ABACA…): – Useful if comparing different treatments – Problems arise sometimes if one treatment Problems How do we establish internal validity – The change should match the criterion Other designs…. Other Alternating Treatments Design (ABACA..) – Useful if comparing different treatments – Problems arise sometimes if one treatment Problems affects the other affects Interpreting the Data Interpreting Data is generally evaluated in terms of visual Data inspection instead of statistics inspection – Brossart et al. (2006) More confident in our results if: – – – – – The effect is replicable There is little overlap between baseline and treatment Treatment effect happens quickly There is a large effect Data are consistent with behavioral theory Social validity Notes Check Notes Get with your group and check your class Get notes for accuracy. Are there any discrepancies? Any questions? discrepancies? Concept Check! Concept How should we go about choosing target How behaviors for change? Who should be involved in that decision? involved Concept Check! Concept What qualifies as “behavior”? Does it have What to be overt? How do we determine what is behavior? What are examples of behavioral deficits and behavioral excesses? deficits Concept Check! Concept An advantage of this experimental design is An that it does not require a return to baseline… baseline… Concept Check! Concept Identify some situations in which a return to Identify baseline is contraindicated. baseline Concept Check! Concept I am collecting data in which I record every am instance of behavior. What type of recording procedure am I using. recording Concept Check! Concept I am too busy to collect data all the time on am how many times Cassie scratches her face, and an interval system is too much of a burden as well. So, I decide to check every 20 minutes, for just a moment, to see if she is engaging in the behavior. What type of recording is this? recording Concept Check! Concept I am currently collecting data on the time am between the trash can being empty in the driveway and the time until Phil brings it up to the side of the house. What type of data am I collecting? am 56 hours Concept Check! Concept I am using a behavioral system within the am business setting in order to increase productivity and reward appropriate productive behavior. What is this called? Concept Check! Concept I have designed my behavioral intervention, have which is multiple baseline across behaviors, and have found that when I implemented treatment on the first behavior, the second one also changed in the desired direction. Why is this a problem? Concept Check! Concept Identify several indirect methods of Identify behavioral assessment behavioral Class Activity Class Billy, a 7-year old autistic child, is brought to the Billy, clinic for aggressive behavior occurring in his special education classroom. After meeting with his parents and the child, you observe the child in the classroom. You discover that the aggressive behavior consists of Billy hitting himself in the face with his open hand. This only occurs during the math lesson, and usually results in him being removed from the classroom to the “quiet place”- a room adjacent to the classroom, staffed with an aide. aide. What is the topography of the behavior? behavior? What is a possible function of the behavior? behavior? Concept Check! Concept What is the difference between the What topography of a response and the function of a response? How could multiple topographies have the same functionality? topographies Concept Check! Concept Identify direct methods of behavioral Identify assessment. assessment. Concept Check! Concept I have a very low frequency behavior which have I am recording with partial interval recording. I calculate the point-by-point agreement for occurrences only and it is 20%. What is likely to happen if I calculate the point-by-point agreement again with occurrences and non-occurrences? and Next Time: Exam #1 Next Covering: Chapters 1, 2, 30, 20, 21, 24, 23 Bring a pencil Questions? Wrap-up Wrap-up Questions/thoughts/comments? Turn in your class assignment Next time: Exam #1 ...
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