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Chapter 3,4,13 - Chapter 3 4 5 13 Behavior modification...

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Chapter 3, 4, 5, 13 – Behavior modification Positive Reinforcer Positive Reinforcer - An event that , when presented immediately following a behavior, causes the behavior to increase in frequency (or the likelihood of occurrence) - Roughly synonymous with the word reward. Positive Reinforcement - In a given situation, somebody does something that is followed immediately by a positive reinforce, then that person is more likely to do the same thing again when he or she next encounters a similar situation Behaviors that operate on the environment to generate consequences, and are in turn influenced by those consequences are called OPERANT BEHAVIORS - Operant behaviors that are followed by reinforcers are strengthened - Operant behaviors followed by punishers are weakened FACTORS INFLUENCEING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT 1. Selecting the behavior to be increased a. Behaviors to be reinforced must first be identified specifically b. If you start with general behavior catergory (being more friendly), you should then identify specific behaviors (smiling ) c. Being specific allows: i. To help ensure the reliability of detecting instances of the behavior and changes the frequency ii. Increases the likelihood that the reinforcement program will be applied consistently. 2. Choosing Reinforcers a. It is important to use reinforces that is effective with the individual with whom you are working b. Classification of positive reinforcers i. Consumable – items that can be ate or drank
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ii. Activity – opportunities to watch Tv, look at a picture book, or stare out of the window. iii. Manipulative – Opportunities to play with a favorite boy, to color or paint, iv. Professional -Opportunities to sit or engage in a favorite thing v. Social - affectionate pats and hugs, praise, nods. c. A considerable amount of trial and error may be involved in order to pick d. It is often quite effective to allow an individual to choose among a number of available reinforcers i. Reinforcer menu e. All reinforcers involve external (extrinsic) stimuli and have internal (intrinsic) aspects 3. Motivation Operations a. Most reinforcers will not effective unless the individual has been deprived of them for some periods of time prior to their use. i. In general , the longer the deprivation that more effective the reinforce will be b. Deprivation = time prior to training in which the patient has no contact with the reinforce c. Satiation = patient has experienced the reinforce to the point where it not longer is reinforcing d. Motivating Operations i. Temporarily alter the effectiveness of a reinforce ii. Alter the frequency of behavior reinforced by that reinforce iii. Ex” deprivation and satiation” iv. Ex: feeding a child salt to increase the want for water intake 4. Reinforcer Size a. Ex: Money and mowing Grass i. May be eager to do it for 20 dollars but not 25 cents 5. Instructions: Make use of rules a. Instructions can facilitate behavioral change in several ways.
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b. Specific instructions will speed up the learning process for individuals who
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