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Unformatted text preview: Today’s Objectives
Today’s Any questions? Project paper grading rubric and example of APA
style on Blackboard
style Next time: Reserve reading: Lovaas (1987) Finish up negative reinforcement Chapter 12: Punishment
– What is it?
How well does it work? Questions/Thoughts/Comments? Positive or Negative
reinforcement What are some potential issues to think
about? Kodak, Lerman, Volkert,and Trosclair
– Even when behavior was maintained through
escape from demands ( i.e neg reinforcement)
people tend to prefer positive reinforcers over
Punishment What is it? What is a punisher?
– Physical punishers Also called unconditioned punishers or aversives – Reprimands Strong verbal statements, don’t have to be vocal but
they often are (stares, glares, point etc can be a
reprimand) [ They are learned, and become aversive
due to the pairing
due – Time out Exclusionary or non exclusionary Punishment
Punishment Positive punishment
– Immediate, response contingent presentation of
an aversive condition that decreases the future
frequency of behavior that preceded it
– Physical punishers
– Reprimands Negative punishment
– Immediate, response contingent removal of a
pleasant condition that decreases the future
frequency of the behavior that preceded it
frequency Some Timeout Guidelines…
Some Speak on the child’s level DO not argue with (use no more than 10
words) 1 minute per year of age Set a timer (to avoid ‘am I done yet?”) Don’t talk to child during time out After time-out is done, tell them what they
did wrong ( to make sure they understand
the Enhancing effectiveness of
punishment Best to increase frequency of desirable
behavior at the same time
behavior Try to identify the reinforcers that are
maintaining the undesirable behavior
maintaining DO not assume something that is a
– Negative attention can be very reinforcing,
especially with the appropriate MO!
especially Punishment should be administered right
after the behavior
after Should punishment be used?
– Gonnerman (2007)
– Facility using shock therapy(contingent use of
shock) on autistic children with self injurious
behavior Problems with punishment
Problems Punishment may elicit affective responses,
like crying and fear
like Tends to elicit aggression Stimuli associated with the punisher may
become conditioned punishers as well
– Potty training (punishing them for accidents)
– Married couples (they become conditioned
punishers for one another, and the mere
presence of their spouse can become a
punisher) Is punishment “effective”?
Is Does it work? Yes
Examples from your own life?
Some empirical evidence Hanley, Piazza, Fisher and Maglieri (2005)
– Paired punishment procedures with FCT; results suggested
that BOTH were preferable in terms of reducing problem
behavior and social validity.
behavior Gershoff, E.T. Psychology Bulletin. Vol128(4), Jul
2002, pp. 539
– That It may
That Next Time…
Next Chapter 5; 7: Extinction, Differential
Reinforcement; Lovaas (1987)
Reinforcement; Questions/Thoughts/Comments? ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/29/2011 for the course PSY 310 taught by Professor . during the Spring '11 term at Grand Valley State University.
- Spring '11