Chapter 12 handouts - Today’s Objectives Today’s Any...

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Unformatted text preview: Today’s Objectives Today’s Any questions? Project paper grading rubric and example of APA Project style on Blackboard style Next time: Reserve reading: Lovaas (1987) Finish up negative reinforcement Chapter 12: Punishment – – – – What is it? Positive Punisher Negative Punisher How well does it work? Questions/Thoughts/Comments? Positive or Negative reinforcement reinforcement What are some potential issues to think What about? about? Kodak, Lerman, Volkert,and Trosclair Kodak, (2007) (2007) – Even when behavior was maintained through Even escape from demands ( i.e neg reinforcement) people tend to prefer positive reinforcers over negative reinforcement negative Punishment Punishment What is it? What is a punisher? – Physical punishers Also called unconditioned punishers or aversives – Reprimands Strong verbal statements, don’t have to be vocal but Strong they often are (stares, glares, point etc can be a reprimand) [ They are learned, and become aversive due to the pairing due – Time out Exclusionary or non exclusionary Punishment Punishment Positive punishment – Immediate, response contingent presentation of Immediate, an aversive condition that decreases the future frequency of behavior that preceded it frequency – Physical punishers – Reprimands Negative punishment – Immediate, response contingent removal of a Immediate, pleasant condition that decreases the future frequency of the behavior that preceded it frequency Some Timeout Guidelines… Some Speak on the child’s level DO not argue with (use no more than 10 DO words) words) 1 minute per year of age Set a timer (to avoid ‘am I done yet?”) Don’t talk to child during time out After time-out is done, tell them what they After did wrong ( to make sure they understand the rule) the Enhancing effectiveness of punishment punishment Best to increase frequency of desirable Best behavior at the same time behavior Try to identify the reinforcers that are Try maintaining the undesirable behavior maintaining DO not assume something that is a DO punisher punisher – Negative attention can be very reinforcing, Negative especially with the appropriate MO! especially Punishment should be administered right Punishment after the behavior after Should punishment be used? Should – Gonnerman (2007) – www.judgerc.org – Facility using shock therapy(contingent use of Facility shock) on autistic children with self injurious behavior behavior Problems with punishment Problems Punishment may elicit affective responses, Punishment like crying and fear like Tends to elicit aggression Stimuli associated with the punisher may Stimuli become conditioned punishers as well become – Potty training (punishing them for accidents) – Married couples (they become conditioned Married punishers for one another, and the mere presence of their spouse can become a punisher) punisher) Is punishment “effective”? Is Does it work? Yes Examples from your own life? Some empirical evidence Hanley, Piazza, Fisher and Maglieri (2005) – Paired punishment procedures with FCT; results suggested Paired that BOTH were preferable in terms of reducing problem behavior and social validity. behavior Gershoff, E.T. Psychology Bulletin. Vol128(4), Jul Gershoff, 2002, pp. 539 2002, Issue.. – That It may That Next Time… Next Chapter 5; 7: Extinction, Differential Chapter Reinforcement; Lovaas (1987) Reinforcement; Questions/Thoughts/Comments? ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/29/2011 for the course PSY 310 taught by Professor . during the Spring '11 term at Grand Valley State University.

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