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Unformatted text preview: Today’s Objectives
Today’s Any questions? Chapters 13
– Negative reinforcement Escape and avoidance conditioning A couple theoretical examples Abstract readings… Reminder: Consent Document due February
24 Questions/Thoughts/Comments? A cool journal to look at…
• Medicine and Science in Sports and
– Might be good for your b-mod project! Negative Reinforcement
Negative What is negative reinforcement?
– Removing of a stimulus in order to increases
the future probability of a behavior
the Escape conditioning
– Immediate, response-contingent removal of an
aversive condition which increases the future
frequency of behavior [aversive condition is already present they engage in
behavior and that removes the aversive behavior]
behavior Avoidance conditioning
– Immediate, response-contingent prevention of
Immediate, Ex. Of Escape
– Ron’s eye hurt from the bright sun ron puts
on his glasses Ron’s eyes do not hurt form
the light Ex of Escape (because I’m already cold)
– Im cold I put on a sweater im not cold Ex of avoidance (I do not already have
– I am going to have chapped lips I put on
chapstick I am not goin to have chapped lips. Question…
Question… Is negative reinforcement “punishment”?
– No because we increase the future frequency of
a behavior punishment is decreasing
behavior Why or why not? A theoretical quandry
theoretical How do we explain avoidance conditioning?
– How can the nonoccurrence of a stimulus be
the cause of behavior?
cause Some thoughts from the theorists…
Some Terminates the warning stimulus Anxiety as a warning stimulus (you think
about seeing your professor from afar, you
feel anxiety because you skipped class, so
you walk the other way, which terminates the
anxiety) Thoughts as a warning stimulus (you
remember that your wife is at home who is a
conditioned aversive stimulus, so you stay at
work longer, which terminates the unpleasant Negative Reinforcement Done
Wrong Escape from demands
– Classrooms, homework , chores, etc Next Slide Cascade of problem behavior Ex:
– Susie is sitting in math class susie bangs her
head on the desk Susie is not sitting in math
– Dawn is going to have to empty the dishwaser
Dawn Dawn Continuum of disruptive. Non
complaiant 1. Passive (sulking, ignoring staring at
things, day dreaming.etc)
things, 2. Verbal
– Mainor : excuses , whining, crying, arguing,
– Major- raise voice, scream, shout. 3.Motor :
– Minor: doodle, move away, fidget, squirm in
chair, drop pencil
– Major: leave room, get out of seat Reinforcement Done Wrong (cont.)
Reinforcement Sick social cycle
– In escaping the perpetrator’s aversive behavior,
the victim unintentionally reinforces that aversive
behavior .[billy has no cocoa puffs in basketbilly throws
tantrum he has cocoa puffs in basket at same time..
(Mom hears/see”s tantrumgives cocoas
puffsdoesn’t see or hear tantrum)
puffs Conditioned aversive stimuli
Conditioned ( a conditioned punisher)
conditioned – Behavior may change, but the stimulus (or
people) in the environment may become CAS.
people) Another theoretical debate…
Another What reinforcement paradigm is drug use
operating Let’s say, heroin use, for example…
– Effects of use: euphoria, increased sexual
– Withdrawl syndrome: malaise, flu-like
symptoms, chills, etc.
symptoms, Is that maintained through posit
reinforcement or negative reinforcement?
Wrap-up Questions/thoughts/comments? Turn in your class assignment- I’ll return
them next time for you to keep and study
from. Next Time: Chapter 12 ...
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- Spring '11