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Chapter 13 handouts - Today’s Objectives Today’s Any...

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Unformatted text preview: Today’s Objectives Today’s Any questions? Chapters 13 Chapters – Negative reinforcement Escape and avoidance conditioning A couple theoretical examples Abstract readings… Reminder: Consent Document due February Reminder: 24th! 24 Questions/Thoughts/Comments? A cool journal to look at… • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise – Might be good for your b-mod project! Negative Reinforcement Negative What is negative reinforcement? – Removing of a stimulus in order to increases Removing the future probability of a behavior the Escape conditioning – Immediate, response-contingent removal of an Immediate, aversive condition which increases the future frequency of behavior [aversive condition is already present they engage in [aversive behavior and that removes the aversive behavior] behavior Avoidance conditioning – Immediate, response-contingent prevention of Immediate, Ex. Of Escape – Ron’s eye hurt from the bright sun ron puts Ron’s on his glasses Ron’s eyes do not hurt form the light Ex of Escape (because I’m already cold) – Im cold I put on a sweater im not cold Ex of avoidance (I do not already have Ex chapped lips) chapped – I am going to have chapped lips I put on am chapstick I am not goin to have chapped lips. Question… Question… Is negative reinforcement “punishment”? – No because we increase the future frequency of No a behavior punishment is decreasing behavior Why or why not? A theoretical quandry theoretical How do we explain avoidance conditioning? – How can the nonoccurrence of a stimulus be How the cause of behavior? cause Some thoughts from the theorists… Some Terminates the warning stimulus Anxiety as a warning stimulus (you think Anxiety about seeing your professor from afar, you feel anxiety because you skipped class, so you walk the other way, which terminates the anxiety) anxiety) Thoughts as a warning stimulus (you Thoughts remember that your wife is at home who is a conditioned aversive stimulus, so you stay at work longer, which terminates the unpleasant Negative Reinforcement Done Wrong Wrong Escape from demands – Classrooms, homework , chores, etc Next Slide Cascade of problem behavior Ex: – Susie is sitting in math class susie bangs her Susie head on the desk Susie is not sitting in math class class – Dawn is going to have to empty the dishwaser Dawn Dawn Continuum of disruptive. Non complaiant behavior complaiant 1. Passive (sulking, ignoring staring at 1. things, day dreaming.etc) things, 2. Verbal 2. – Mainor : excuses , whining, crying, arguing, – Major- raise voice, scream, shout. 3.Motor : 3.Motor – Minor: doodle, move away, fidget, squirm in Minor: chair, drop pencil chair, – Major: leave room, get out of seat Reinforcement Done Wrong (cont.) Reinforcement Sick social cycle – In escaping the perpetrator’s aversive behavior, In the victim unintentionally reinforces that aversive behavior behavior .[billy has no cocoa puffs in basketbilly throws billy tantrum he has cocoa puffs in basket at same time.. tantrum (Mom hears/see”s tantrumgives cocoas gives puffsdoesn’t see or hear tantrum) puffs Conditioned aversive stimuli Conditioned ( a conditioned punisher) conditioned – Behavior may change, but the stimulus (or Behavior people) in the environment may become CAS. people) Another theoretical debate… Another What reinforcement paradigm is drug use What operating on? operating Let’s say, heroin use, for example… – Effects of use: euphoria, increased sexual Effects feelings (initially) feelings – Withdrawl syndrome: malaise, flu-like Withdrawl symptoms, chills, etc. symptoms, Is that maintained through posit iive ve reinforcement or negative reinforcement? reinforcement Wrap-up Wrap-up Questions/thoughts/comments? Turn in your class assignment- I’ll return Turn them next time for you to keep and study from. from. Next Time: Chapter 12 ...
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