Chapters 3 and 4 handout

Chapters 3 and 4 handout - Today’s Objectives Today’s...

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Unformatted text preview: Today’s Objectives Today’s Any questions? Exam #1 Chapters 3 and 4 – Reinforcers – Positive reinforcement – Establishing Operations – Types of reinforcers Questions/Thoughts/Comments? Reinforcement Reinforcement B-mod generally relies on operant B-mod conditioning conditioning What is a “reinforcer”? – An event or stimulus presented after the An behavior, that increases the future frequency of the behavior Types of reinforcers – Attention is a very positive enforcer (social Attention reinforcement: praise, hugs, etc.) reinforcement: – Consumable (food etc) How do items “become” reinforcers? How Unconditioned reinforcers (unlearned) – Stimuli that are reinforcing with out any proir Stimuli learning history. – Sometimes called primary and un learned – They are innately reinforcing Food, water, warmth – Help promote the survival of the species Conditioned reinforcers (learned) – Established because they are paired with another Established Reinforcers Reinforcers Indirect Assessment Hagopian et al. (2004) Hagopian Ask the person/others Use a checklist Use an interview Direct Assessment Direct Hagopian et al. (2004) Use the Premack principle Engagement Based Measures Direct Assessment Direct Preference Assessment Types of Preference Assessments Types Single Stimulus (SS): Pace et al. (1985) – Present each stimulus individually, and the client Present is given the opportunity to briefly consume/approach the stimulus consume/approach Types of Preference Assessments Types Paired-Stimulus (PS): Fisher et al. (1992) – Stimuli presented in pairs, and the client is Stimuli given an opportunity to select one of the stimuli given Types of Preference Assessments Types Multiple-Stimulus: Windsor et al. (1994) – Present an array of stimuli, and the client is Present given the opportunity to briefly consume/approach one stimulus consume/approach – Variations: Multiple-Stimulus Without Variations: Replacement (DeLeon & Iwata, 1996) Replacement So, if a person “picks” item in a preference assessment, does that mean it is a “reinforcer”? mean Not necessarily mean it will operate as an Not reinforcer. reinforcer. – Must see if it increases the future frequency of Must behavior Piazza et al. (1996) – Empirical research on preference assessment Empirical relationship to teinforcer effectiveness relationship – Preference assessment can be used to predict Preference Do “reinforcers” change over time? Do Yes, but it is based upon Yes, Are there times when some things are more “reinforcing” than others? are Factors Effecting Reinforcers Factors Motivating (Establishing) operations (MO’s) – Deprivation and Satiation – Deprivation: A state or condition that temporily alters Deprivation: the effectiveness of a behavior and temporarily alters the frequency of behaviors used to get the behavior the – Ex: wanting water after donuts Satiation: Have had A LOT of the reinforcer and Satiation: decreases the frequency of behaviors that lead to the behavior and the behavior it self. behavior – Ex: the donut example,, eating donuts Positive Reinforcement (Sr+) Positive Contingencies Contingencies What is it? – A contingency In which a behavior occurs and contingency the object, stimulus or event that follows it increases the future frequency of that behavior. increases Reinforcer must immediately follow the Reinforcer behavior behavior – How do we respond to delayed reinforcers? Also looks at the behavior it self Contingent Reinforcement Contingent Reinforcement should be contingent on the Reinforcement behavior behavior – Sniffy example ( rat and lever pressing versus just Sniffy giving cheese automatically) giving Non-contingent reinforcement will not change Non-contingent behavior, except coming to that environment behavior, – Problem of adventitious reinforcement Reinforcement is everywhere! – Many behaviors are maintained by natural Many reinforcers not contrived ones reinforcers Steps of positive reinforcement programs programs Choose and define the target behavior Choose a reinforcer (make sure it’s a Choose reinforcer) reinforcer) Administer the reinforcer contingent on the Administer behavior Wean from the contrived reinforcer to natural Wean reinforcers reinforcers Reinforcement Done Wrong Reinforcement Reinforce inappropriate behavior Reinforce Do not provide reinforcement immediately Do after the behavior after Assume that “negative attention” is punishing – Ayllon and Michael (1959) Targeted a variety of behavioral excesses in a Targeted psychiatric facility that were likely mainttained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention positive Wrap-up Wrap-up Questions/thoughts/comments? Hanley, Iwata and Roscoe Next Time: Chapter 13 ...
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