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Unformatted text preview: Today’s Objectives
Today’s Any questions?
Chapters 3 and 4
– Positive reinforcement
– Establishing Operations
– Types of reinforcers Questions/Thoughts/Comments? Reinforcement
Reinforcement B-mod generally relies on operant
conditioning What is a “reinforcer”?
– An event or stimulus presented after the
behavior, that increases the future frequency of
the behavior Types of reinforcers
– Attention is a very positive enforcer (social
reinforcement: praise, hugs, etc.)
– Consumable (food etc) How do items “become” reinforcers?
How Unconditioned reinforcers (unlearned)
– Stimuli that are reinforcing with out any proir
– Sometimes called primary and un learned
– They are innately reinforcing Food, water, warmth – Help promote the survival of the species Conditioned reinforcers (learned)
– Established because they are paired with another
Reinforcers Indirect Assessment
Hagopian et al. (2004)
Hagopian Ask the person/others Use a checklist Use an interview Direct Assessment
Hagopian et al. (2004) Use the Premack principle Engagement Based Measures Direct Assessment
Direct Preference Assessment Types of Preference Assessments
Types Single Stimulus (SS): Pace et al. (1985)
– Present each stimulus individually, and the client
is given the opportunity to briefly
consume/approach the stimulus
consume/approach Types of Preference Assessments
Types Paired-Stimulus (PS): Fisher et al. (1992)
– Stimuli presented in pairs, and the client is
given an opportunity to select one of the stimuli
given Types of Preference Assessments
Types Multiple-Stimulus: Windsor et al. (1994)
– Present an array of stimuli, and the client is
given the opportunity to briefly
consume/approach one stimulus
consume/approach – Variations: Multiple-Stimulus Without
Replacement (DeLeon & Iwata, 1996)
Replacement So, if a person “picks” item in a
preference assessment, does that
mean it is a “reinforcer”?
mean Not necessarily mean it will operate as an
– Must see if it increases the future frequency of
behavior Piazza et al. (1996)
– Empirical research on preference assessment
relationship to teinforcer effectiveness
– Preference assessment can be used to predict
Preference Do “reinforcers” change over time?
Yes, but it is based upon
Yes, Are there times when some things
are more “reinforcing” than others?
are Factors Effecting Reinforcers
Factors Motivating (Establishing) operations (MO’s)
– Deprivation and Satiation
– Deprivation: A state or condition that temporily alters
the effectiveness of a behavior and temporarily alters
the frequency of behaviors used to get the behavior
– Ex: wanting water after donuts Satiation: Have had A LOT of the reinforcer and
decreases the frequency of behaviors that lead to the
behavior and the behavior it self.
– Ex: the donut example,, eating donuts Positive Reinforcement (Sr+)
Contingencies What is it?
– A contingency In which a behavior occurs and
the object, stimulus or event that follows it
increases the future frequency of that behavior.
increases Reinforcer must immediately follow the
– How do we respond to delayed reinforcers? Also looks at the behavior it self Contingent Reinforcement
Contingent Reinforcement should be contingent on the
– Sniffy example ( rat and lever pressing versus just
giving cheese automatically)
giving Non-contingent reinforcement will not change
behavior, except coming to that environment
– Problem of adventitious reinforcement Reinforcement is everywhere!
– Many behaviors are maintained by natural
reinforcers not contrived ones
reinforcers Steps of positive reinforcement
programs Choose and define the target behavior Choose a reinforcer (make sure it’s a
reinforcer) Administer the reinforcer contingent on the
behavior Wean from the contrived reinforcer to natural
reinforcers Reinforcement Done Wrong
Reinforcement Reinforce inappropriate behavior
Reinforce Do not provide reinforcement immediately
after the behavior
after Assume that “negative attention” is punishing
– Ayllon and Michael (1959) Targeted a variety of behavioral excesses in a
psychiatric facility that were likely mainttained by
positive reinforcement in the form of attention
Hanley, Iwata and Roscoe
Next Time: Chapter 13 ...
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- Spring '11