Chapters 6 handouts

Chapters 6 handouts - Today’s Objectives Today’s Any...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Today’s Objectives Today’s Any questions? Chapter 6 and Lovaas article Chapter – Schedules of reinforcement – Differential reinforcement Questions/Thoughts/Comments? Critical Questions on Lovaas (1987) Critical 1. The Lovaas (1987) study contended the autistic The individuals had deficits in their learning repertoire. What was the deficit, and how was this intervention designed to address this deficit? 2. Who were the subjects for this study, and what 2. Who experimental groups were they assigned to? experimental 3. Explain the interventions in place for the treatment Explain group. group. 4. What measures did they use to assess changes in What the experimental condition? the 5. What were the specific results, and what are the What implications of the results? implications Schedules of reinforcement/punishment reinforcement/punishment Schedule of reinforcement: Schedule – A rule specifying which occurrences of a given behavior rule will be reinforced This affects the strength of the behavior Schedules of reinforcement Schedules Types of schedules: – Continuous reinforcement: Some behaviors in the natural environment Some are maintained on a continuous schedule of reinforcement reinforcement However, this is unrealistic in the long term in However, many B-Mod programs many – Many be used initially during response acquistion Intermittent reinforcement Intermittent Occasional reinforcement of the response Advantages of intermittent reinforcement – Less satiation Less – These schedules are more resistant to These extinction extinction – Many behaviors in natural environments are Many reinforcer on intermittent schedules reinforcer – Takes longer to extinguish Different types of intermittent schedules Types of Intermittent Schedules Types Fixed Ratio: provide reinforcement after a fixed Fixed number of responses number – Designed: FR 16 (16 being the number of responses Designed: needed for reinforcement) needed – Examples: pay for a certain number of bushels picked, piece-rate Examples: pay, etc. A messy example: graduate school pay, – Response patterns: post-reinforcement pause (proportional to the Response value of the FR), and then high steady rsponding. – Relatively resistant to extinction Types of Intermittent Schedules Types Variable Ratio: provide reinforcement after a Variable variable number of responses variable – Number ofbehaviors needed for reinforcement Number varies around some mean value varies – Designated: VR 16 (16 being the averagr Designated: number of responses needed for reinforcement) number – Ex: Slow machines, asking someone out on a Ex: date,whining by a child date,whining – Response pattern: almost no post reinforcement Response pause and a very, steady rate of responding, even on thin schedule even Types of Intermittent Schedules Types Fixed Interval: provide reinforcement for the first Fixed response after a fixed time interval response – Designated “ FI 5 (meaning the first response after 5 Designated minuets will be reinforced) minuets – Responsnes before the time has elapsed have no effect Responsnes on reinforcement on – Ex: Looking at your watch for a date, flipping the TV Ex: during commercials during – Response patterns: post reinforcement pause and then Response responding will gradually increase as end of interval appproaches (FI scallop) appproaches – Doesn’t produce a high rate of behavior Types of Intermittent Schedules Types Variable Interval: provide reinforcement for the first Variable response that occurs after a variable time interval response – Designated: VI (meaning the first response after an Designated: average of five minutes will be reinforced) average – Responses before the time has elapsed have no effect Responses on reinforcement on – Ex: – Calling a busy line checking email – Response patterns: responses on a slow but steady Response rate, with a small post reinforcement pause rate, – Low rates of responding not as much post reinforcement Low pause pause Variations on Interval schedules Variations Limited hold: a finite amount of time, after a Limited reinforcer becomes available, that the response will produce a reinforcer (like a deadline) deadline) – You get higher rates of behavior – These schedules produce effects similar to ratio These schedules schedules Ex catching the bus you can only get on the bus at that Ex time when its there, once its gone u have to wait again (it’s a deadline) procudes higher rates (it’s Variable ratio is best for desiring higher rate Variations on Interval schedules Variations Duration schedules: involve reinforcement Duration occurring after behavior has been engaged in for a continuous amount of time for – Getting paid by the hour is on an FD schedule, Getting working on this lecture is on an FD schedule working – Waiting to cross the street is VD – Sometimes it is difficult to tell if behavior has been Sometimes engaged in continuously engaged – Ex: study for 45 minutes then u get a break Ex: (reinforcement) (reinforcement) Concurrent schedules of reinforcement reinforcement In reality, there are multiple possible In behaviors, controlled by different reinforcers on different schedules on Matching law: Matching Other things that affect rates of behavior Review for Exam Review Same format as last time – 30 multiple choice – 5 short answer What questions do you have? Availible 2morrow Make sure you have read ALL reserve articles! Gonnerman (2007) Lovaas (1987) Critical Questions on Lovaas (1987) Critical 1. The Lovaas (1987) study contended the autistic The individuals had deficits in their learning repertoire. What was the deficit, and how was this intervention designed to address this deficit? 2. Who were the subjects for this study, and what 2. Who experimental groups were they assigned to? experimental 3. Explain the interventions in place for the treatment Explain group. group. 4. What measures did they use to assess changes in What the experimental condition? the 5. What were the specific results, and what are the What implications of the results? implications Review Review Today I went outside and it was raining, so I Today opened my umbrella. What type of contingency is operating? contingency Review Review Let’s say I looked outside the window and Let’s saw that it was raining, so I opened my umbrella before I even got wet? umbrella Review Review What is an example of a generalized What conditioned reinforcer? conditioned Review Review What is one probable problem with time-out What procedures? procedures? Review Review What is a potential problem with What implementing punishment procedures? implementing Review Review What type of schedule will produce a postreinforcement pause? Review Review What is ratio strain? Review Review How might babbling be an example of How differential reinforcement? (i.e., that babbling over time more closely resembles parental speech) parental Review Review Why does conceptualizing DRO as Why Differential Reinforcement of Zero behavior present problems? present Review Review Let’s say a spouse is angry at his partner, Let’s so he decides to give his partner the “silent treatment”. What contingencies are operating here (there are probably multiple)? multiple)? At the end of a poker game, you can trade At in your chips for money. In this case, what kind of reinforcer is money (i.e., conditioned, back-up, unconditioned, etc.)? back-up, Wrap-up Wrap-up Questions/thoughts/comments? Next Time: Exam #2; Chapters 3, 4, 13, 12, Next 5, 6, 7, Reserve articles 5, Bring a pencil and your brain! ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online