Chapter 16 Fall 2008

Chapter 16 Fall 2008 - Today’s Objectives Today’s Any...

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Unformatted text preview: Today’s Objectives Today’s Any questions? Reminders: Exam #3 Thursday, April 2nd (Chapters 8, 17, 10, 11, 16, reserve article); B-mod paper due Tuesday, April 7th B-mod Chapter 16: Generalization – What it is – Transfer of training – To get generalization – Maintaining a behavior Questions/Thoughts/Comments? A few words on fading… few “Fading” can refer to… – Fading the stimulus that controls the response, Fading so that is occurs to other stimuli as well so This encourages stimulus generalization – Fading out prompts or physical assistance – Fading out reinforcement to encourage Fading response generalization response “Generality” refers to… Trained behavior transfers to the natural Trained environment environment – Stimulus generalization Training leads to the development of new Training behaviors that were not specifically trained behaviors – Response generalization Trained behavior is maintained in natural Trained environment over time environment – Maintenance “Generality” refers to… Trained behavior transfers to the natural Trained environment environment – Stimulus generalization Training leads to the development of new Training behaviors that were not specifically trained behaviors – Response generalization Trained behavior is maintained in natural Trained environment over time environment – Maintenance Trained behavior transfers to the natural environment natural Stimulus generalization – Behavior becomes more probable in the Behavior presence of one stimulus or situation because it has been reinforced in the presence of a similar stimulus or situation stimulus – Occurs because Physical similarity Share a common element Members of the same equivalence class- both Members control the same response control Stimulus generalization is sometimes called… sometimes Transfer of training: performance Transfer established at one time in one place now occurs in a different time and place. occurs So how do we get stimulus generalization? generalization? Training environment and natural Training (generalization) environment should be similar similar – Train in the natural environment toward the end Train of training of Vary the training conditions Program common stimuli in training and Program natural environments natural Train sufficient stimulus exemplars “Generality” refers to… Trained behavior transfers to the natural Trained environment environment – Stimulus generalization Training leads to the development of new Training behaviors that were not specifically trained behaviors – Response generalization Trained behavior is maintained in natural Trained environment over time environment – Maintenance Training leads to the development of new behaviors that were not specifically trained specifically Response generalization – When a behavior becomes more probable in the When presence of a stimulus or situation as a result of another behavior having been strengthened in the another presence of that stimulus or situation. presence – Happens because: Physical similarity of responses (behaviors) Learned response generalization (sometimes with RGB) Functionally equivalent responses- different behaviors Functionally that produce the same consequence that So how do we get response generalization? generalization? Train sufficient response exemplars Vary the acceptable responses during Vary training training “Generality” refers to… Trained behavior transfers to the natural Trained environment environment – Stimulus generalization Training leads to the development of new Training behaviors that were not specifically trained behaviors – Response generalization Trained behavior is maintained in natural Trained environment over time environment – Maintenance Trained behavior is maintained in natural environment over time natural Called maintenance Behavioral Trap – Using the natural reinforcers in the environment to Using maintain the behavior maintain Change the behavior of the people in the natural Change environment environment Use intermittent reinforcement Fade contrived reinforcement Self-management Class Activity Class A 13-year-old girl presents for social skills 13-year-old training. You design an intervention in which you use candy to reinforce appropriate social behaviors (eye contact, conversation tracking, appropriate verbalizations, etc.) Your program is very successful during training. What can you do to facilitate generalization to the natural environment? Review… Review… Exam #3 next time… – 4 essay questions – 34 multiple choice – Create lots of EXAMPLES during studying… – Let’s review Review… Review… Explain the concept of stimulus Explain generalization gradient and give an example… example… Review… Review… What is a real life example of stimulus What control? control? – What are the SD and S-deltas? Review… Review… What is a real life example of stimulus What generalization? generalization? Review… Review… Why is stimulus generalization desirable? Review… Review… Kieri says, “I really wish I had a cookie”. Kieri What kind of verbal behavior is this most probably an example of? probably Review… Review… This type of verbal behavior is controlled by This an immediately prior non-verbal stimulus. an – What is an example? Review… Review… How do we control behavior that is farther How than 30-seconds out? than Review… Review… I want to encourage appropriate speech in want an autistic child, but the child is not evidencing any appropriate speech yet. What should I do? What Review… Review… I am trying to encourage appropriate form am and quality of kicking in young soccer players. What might be the initial, intermediate, and terminal behaviors, and what procedure would I use? what Review… Review… I am trying to get an individual to properly am write a paper, including looking up sources, reading them, writing an introduction, a reference page, etc. What procedure should I use? use? Review… Review… I am trying to get a person to learn the am process of scrapbooking, including printing out pictures, cutting them, placing them on a page, adding appropriate embellishments, etc. What procedure should I use? etc. Review… Review… What are some ways to get transfer of What training? training? Review… Review… Let’s say that in the presence of this stimulus: – “Can I have a glass of water?” The student knows that the right answer (and the one that The will be reinforced) is “Mand” will But, in the presence of this stimulus: – “I sure wish I had a piece of chocolate” The student does not know that the right answer is “Mand” The not In terms of what we have talked about today, what is the In problem here? problem Other questions??? Other I will hang out for a few minutes to answer will questions about the exam or to address questions related to the group paper project… project… Wrap-up Wrap-up Questions/thoughts/comments? Next Time: Exam #3 Bring a pencil and your brains! ...
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