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Unformatted text preview: General Principles of General Principles of Exercise Testing and Exercise Prescription for Muscular Strength and Endurance
Chapter 3 Resistance Training (RT)
Resistance Training (RT) Traditionally performed by Athletes RT has profound effects on general health and performance Now the ACSM recommends RT in conjunction with other exercise modalities to maintain and improve health and performance for virtually everyone Individualized RT
Individualized RT First, obtain medical clearance Second, perform a needs analysis Necessary to set individual goals What are some common questions that need to be addressed??? Third, address individual’s strengths and weaknesses 1RPmax wont be used unless its an athelete Role of Dynamic Muscle Action
Role of Dynamic Muscle Action Concentric (CON) Increases muscular strength Isometric (ISOM) Eccentric (ECC) (does most “damage”) Increases muscular strength
Popular for testing
Elicits ROMspecific strength increases Greater force production
Less metabolically demanding
Greater DOMS With special pops. You don’t want them to be sore all the time. Give Load and Repetition Prescription
Load and Repetition Prescription Define Load? Altering training load effects acute metabolic, hormonal, neural and cardiovascular responses to training What about neural adaptations? Inverse relationship between weight lifted and number of reps What are rep ranges for strength, hypertrophy, and endurance? Wt. vs. Reps RT Volume
RT Volume Formula for Volume? The way to measure intensity (sets) x (reps) x (wt. or load) = volume Can vary by changing number of sets, exercises, or reps performed Single vs Multiple set training? Untrained vs Trained 1 set may be appropriate when just started out or RT Exercise Selection
RT Exercise Selection Be Specific to training goals Multiple Joint (fxnal), Single Joint, Axial Loading, Core, Assistance, Olympic Lifts??? Stress all major muscle groups to maintain muscular balance Start large to small groups Women: maybe with arms and back then go to legs Start with what they are uncomfortable with and go to what they are comfortable so you end on a good note. Variety Counts! Exercise Sequencing
Exercise Sequencing Order significantly effects performance and subsequent adaptation
Highly dependent upon energy metabolism and fatigue
For RT priority is large muscle mass to smaller
Fullbody Upper Lower Split Individual Muscle Split Rest Intervals
Rest Intervals The Amount of rest between sets and exercises significantly effects performance and subsequent adaptation to RT
What could effect rest period length???
ACSM recommended rest intervals…. Lifting Velocity
Lifting Velocity The rate of lifting effects the magnitude of force production What happens to force with slow velocity? Fast? What happens with fatigue? Training at moderate velocity appears to produce the greatest strength increases
ACSM recommendations….. Moderately high is the best. (1sec up, 23 sec down) Frequency
Frequency Typically 23 days/wk in untrained individuals
35 days/wk for increasing maximal strength
What does ACSM recommend for beginning lifters?
Increasing frequency allows for greater specialization
ACSM each muscle group is trained only 12 times/wk. What about advanced athletes? Muscular Endurance Muscular Endurance Prescription Define Local Muscular Endurance Traditional RT does increase absolute muscular endurance
Primary strategies for improving muscular endurance
Two General Types: High Intensity/strength endurance Submaximal Exercise Selection (Endurance)
Exercise Selection (Endurance) Fatigue is a necessary component of endurance training Performing an exercise in a semifatigued state may improve local muscular endurance ASCM recommends… Intensity, Volume, Rest
Intensity, Volume, Rest Light loads with high repetitions most effective High volume programs are superior for endurance enhancement (1015r/35s) Lack of full recovery between sets appears to be a critical component for local muscular endurance training (<12 min rest) Frequency & Velocity
Frequency & Velocity Frequency recommendations similar to that of strength adaptations Extending duration is paramount to increasing local muscular endurance by either a slow lifting velocity or an increased # of reps RT Progression
RT Progression Progressive OverloadStrategies? SpecificityPhysiological adaptations to RT? Variation Short term program modifications for long term success Strength & Endurance Testing
Strength & Endurance Testing Regular assessment enables proper evaluation of exercise prescription Testing Modalities: Free weights, Machines, Body weight…..Challenges??? Advantages???
Testing should be similar to the training
Familiarization: what’s involved?
Encouragement: must be consistent
Safety Considerations: Equipment check, Spotters are mandatory, Postioning Dynamic Strength Protocols
Dynamic Strength Protocols 1RM “Gold Standard” for strength (pg 47) Are estimations made from multipleRM performance valid? Isometric Testing
Isometric Testing When testing ISOM strength at least a 5 sec maximal contraction should be used ISOM devices can measure local muscular endurance Examples include: hip, back and hand grip dynamometer, cable tensiometers Isokinetic Testing
Isokinetic Testing ISOK testing is performed on dynamometers that control for velocity Important to consider the joint and angle being tested, whether CON or ECC action, proper position of individual, stabilizing all body parts Can measure peak torque, mean torque, total work, and fatigue test Summary
Summary RT has many benefits for all populations
Success depends on proper manipulation of program variables
Most important RT concepts include: progressive overload, specificity, and variation
Testing evaluation should be specific to training modality and used to assist in progression of RT programs ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/29/2011 for the course MOV 470 taught by Professor Crawley during the Spring '11 term at Grand Valley State University.
- Spring '11