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Mov 470 Ch 4 Gender Differences

Mov 470 Ch 4 Gender Differences - Differences Between...

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Unformatted text preview: Differences Between Men & Women for Exercise Testing & Prescription Testing Chapter 4 Chapter Civil Right Act 1964 ? Prohibited job discrimination on the basis of sex In 1972 US Education Amendment Title IX ? Equal funding for girls and boys sports. Couldn’t receive federal funding with out the Couldn’t program giving equal oppurtunity Can women be trained for a sport or conditioned for fitness using the same format identical to men; are there special Body size and Composition Body Differences in height, weight, diameters, Differences skinfold thickness between sexes do not appear until age 12 to 14 years appear Endocrine changes at puberty Male Testosterone Increases the amount of protein deposited in muscle, Increases bone mass bone Males have longer growth phase Female – Increased estrogen Increased More deposition of fat Physiologic Responses to Acute Exercise Physiologic Are women the weaker sex? Upper vs Lower body strength? Upper body will always be more male dominant Lower body we are pretty much par for par What about expressed relative to FFM? Male and female athletes in the same Male sport or event have similar distributions of fiber types, although men appear to reach greater extremes greater If you participant in more fast twitch or type If Cardiovascular Responses Cardiovascular Men generally have a lower heart rate Men response to submaximal power output response WHY? Larger Heart, Larger SV, Less sedentary (in Larger general) general) Maximal HR does not differ between Maximal sexes of the same age sexes Women tend to have lower output values than Women men in maximal(?) men Respiratory Responses Respiratory Differences largely due to body size Women tend to breath at a higher Women frequency for the same absolute power output due to the fact that they would be working at a higher % of their VO2max at the working same absolute power output same Ventilation 150 L/min to 250 Metabolic Responses Metabolic VO2max is regarded as the single best index of an 2max individual’s cardiorespiratory endurance capacity individual’s Women tend to peak at 13-15 yrs old (ex: Women gymnast) Men around 10-22 Men Cureton and Sparling found that the greater sex Cureton specific essential body fat stores of women is a major determinant of the sex differences in the metabolic response to running metabolic Davies found that VO2max is directly related to the 2max Physiological Adaptations to Physiological Long-Term Exercise Body Composition: Changes in women Body are generally small compared to men are Bone and Connective Tissue: ??? Not well understood Appears to be independent of sex , but female Appears tend to get injured more. tend Neuromuscular: Women could gain Neuromuscular: considerable benefits from strength Will women ever be able to attain the same levels of strength as men for all major regions of the body? for The quality of muscle is the same, The irrespective of sex irrespective Testosterone Factor…men have the Testosterone distinct advantage distinct Cardiovascular & Respiratory LongCardiovascular Term Adaptations Do not appear to be sex specific HR for any given level of work is reduced Women cross country runners can have a RHR of Women 36 36 Metabolic Adaptations Metabolic Women experience the same relative Women increase in VO2max observed in men increase 2max observed Magnitude of increase is highly related to initial Magnitude level of fitness level Women can improve their VO2max by up to 2max 50% with aerobic training 50% Women tend to have been more sedentary VO2 is genetically pre- determined VO2 (ceiling affect) (ceiling Exercise Testing & Prescription Exercise Special Considerations Aging: women have more fat and less FFM at any given age any Osteoporosis: important to maintain regular Osteoporosis: physical activity, normal estrogen levels, and calcium intake calcium Issue in women with eating disorders Older, normal weight women, no weight fro Older, overload overload Menstruation: individual variability, identifying Menstruation: amenorrhea amenorrhea Environmental Factors: Same response to Environmental Summary Summary In acute responses and chronic In adaptations to exercise, few differences between the sexes exist between Differences can be more attributed to Differences physical inactivity physical Adjust exercise intensity accordingly Most women are NOT similar to men Most when they initiate their training program (women considered more sedentary ...
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