diabetesstu - Diabetes Mellitus Patricia Kelly MSN RN CNE...

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Diabetes Mellitus Patricia Kelly, MSN, RN, CNE NURS 336 Spring 2011
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Some Sobering STATS!! 20.8 million in US have diabetes 41 million have pre-diabetes Direct or indirect cause of death in 18% of people age 25 yrs or older 5 th leading cause of death in US Leading cause of adult blindness, end stage renal disease, lower limb amputation Contributing factor for heart disease & stroke Is chronic disease!!
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What Is Diabetes? Disorders of glucose metabolism Elevated blood glucose is hallmark Altered metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins occurs Altered availability of insulin present
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Normal Insulin Metabolism Insulin is a hormone Produced by beta cells of islets of Langerhans (pancreas) Normally – insulin continuously released in bloodstream Increased release when food is ingested Lowers blood glucose Average amount insulin secreted daily by adult approx 40-50 units
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Functions of Insulin Promotes transport of glucose from blood into the cells Promotes protein synthesis Inhibits formation and release of glucose form liver
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Counterregulatory Hormones Include glucagon, epinephrine, cortisol Oppose the effects of insulin Increase blood glucose levels by stimulating production and release of glucose from liver Prevent movement of glucose into cells
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Working Together!! Insulin and counterregulatory hormones work to regulate a steady release of glucose for energy Blood glucose levels maintained in a normal range of: 65-99 mg/dL
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Types of Diabetes Type 1 Type 2 Gestational diabetes Impaired glucose tolerance Secondary diabetes
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Type 1 Diabetes Pancreatic beta cells are attacked & destroyed Three contributing factors
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