Focus on Pain stu

Focus on Pain stu - Focus on Pain N336 Spring 2011 P. Kelly...

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Focus on Pain N336 Spring 2011 P. Kelly
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Introduction One major reason people seek health care Nurses have a central role in assessment and management
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Nursing Roles Assess pain and communicate with other health care providers Ensure initiation of adequate pain relief measures Evaluate effectiveness of interventions Advocate for those in pain
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Magnitude of the Pain Problem Acute pain is the most common reason for health care visits 15% to 20% of Americans have acute pain caused by injury or surgery 25% to 30% from persistent or chronic pain such as arthritis Over 25 million suffer from migraine headaches
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Magnitude of the Pain Problem Despite the prevalence of pain, many studies document inadequate pain management across care settings and patient populations
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Magnitude of the Pain Problem Consequences of untreated pain Unnecessary suffering Physical and psychosocial dysfunction Impaired recovery from acute illness and surgery Immunosuppression Sleep disturbances
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Magnitude of the Pain Problem Why nurses undertreat pain Inadequate skills to assess and treat pain Unwillingness to believe patient reports Lack of time, expertise, and perceived importance of pain assessments False concepts of addiction and tolerance Fear that aggressive pain management may hasten or cause death.
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Definition of Pain Whatever the person experiencing pain says it is Unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage (IASP)
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Description of Pain Subjective: patient’s experience and self- report is essential Can be problematic when dealing with special populations (coma or dementia) Nonverbal information such as behaviors aids the assessment of pain
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Dimensions of Pain Multidimensional experience Physiologic Sensory Affective Cognitive Behavioral Sociocultural
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Pain Mechanisms Nociception: physiologic process that communicates tissue damage to the CNS Involves four processes Transduction Transmission Perception Modulation
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Pain Mechanisms Two types of pain Nociceptive Activation of peripheral nociceptors Neuropathic Abnormal processing of stimuli by the nervous system
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Classification of Pain By underlying pathology Nociceptive Neuropathic By duration Acute Chronic
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Pathology Nociceptive Pain Damage to somatic or visceral tissue Surgical incision, broken bone, or arthritis Usually responsive to opioids and nonopioid medications Neuropathic Pain Damage to peripheral nerve or CNS Burning, shooting, stabbing, or electrical in nature Sudden, intense, short-lived, or lingering
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Acute Pain and Chronic Pain Differences based on: Cause Course Manifestation Treatment
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Focus on Pain stu - Focus on Pain N336 Spring 2011 P. Kelly...

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