N336 Imbalanced Nutrition student

N336 Imbalanced Nutrition student - Jacqueline Tulley, RN,...

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Unformatted text preview: Jacqueline Tulley, RN, MSN, ACNP N336 Response to stress produce multiple changes in metabolic processes throughout the body Depends on the magnitude and duration of the stress Target organs Sympathetic nervous system Adrenal medulla Adrenal pituitary and cortex Posterior pituitary Effects nutrient metabolism Protein metabolism  More protein used for energy Fat metabolism  Increased use of fat for energy Carbohydrate metabolism  Increased blood sugars Hydration/fluid status  Increased fluid loss (fever, increased urination, diarrhea, diuretic therapy, draining wounds) Vitamins and minerals  Body requires more (because uses more in hypermetabolic state) Defined as a deficit, excess, or imbalance of the essential components of a balanced diet Undernutrition and overnutrition are terms used to describe malnutrition Undernutrition: State of poor nourishment as a result of inadequate diet or disease that interfere with normal appetite or digestion  Scurvy: lack of Vit C  Rickets: lack of Vit D Overnutrition: Ingestion of more food than required by the body  obesity Protein Calorie Malnutrition Kwashiorkor: low protein levels Maramus: appear wasted or emaciated Starvation process Prolonged starvation body burns carbs first, once depleted protein converts to glucose to be burned up, then burn up fat. Fat stores are burned up in approx 4-6 weeks. Now remaining protein (in organs) is used for energy and will impair the liver. Body is also dehydrated and affects electrolytes. Death will occur unless immediate restoration of protein and other nutrients Factors that may contribute to ingestion, digestion, absorption, and metabolism Ingestion Digestion Absorption metabolism Height Weight Head, arm muscle circumference Skin-fold thickness Body mass index (BMI)  BMI = Weight (kg) / Height 2 ( m 2)  Morbidity = BMI less than 15 kg/m2  Under weight = BMI less than 18 kg/m2  Healthy weight BMI 18.5 24.9 kg/m2  Over weight = BMI between 25 29.9 kg/m2  Obese = BMI 30 kg/m2 or greater Clinical observations Medical history Social history Physical examination  Findings : dry, brittle sparse hair, alopecia, skin decreased...
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N336 Imbalanced Nutrition student - Jacqueline Tulley, RN,...

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