Drugs Affecting Blood Glucose Levels

Drugs Affecting Blood Glucose Levels - Drugs Affecting...

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Drugs Affecting Blood Glucose Levels
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Physiology - Background Glucose available from food ingested and glucose production by liver Use and regulation of glucose controlled by body systems Liver Pancreas Skeletal muscle tissue
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Physiology – Background Liver – Gluconeogenesis Synthesizes own glucose supply Stores/ releases glucose ingested from diet Blood levels low – releases stored or synthesized glucose Blood levels high – stops producing/releasing glucose Pancreas Beta cells within the islets of Langerhans secrete insulin Muscle Tissue Target organ – contains insulin receptor sites Glucose crosses membrane and enters cell Insulin resistance – fewer receptor sites – glucose unable to enter cell
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Physiology - Background Insulin Synthesized as precursor protein Splits forming insulin and peptide C Secretion triggered by high blood glucose levels Functions of Insulin Regulates carbohydrate metabolism Role in fat and protein metabolism Stimulates uptake of glucose by cells Stores glucose as glycogen in the liver Suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis
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Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Autoimmune disorder Absolute insulin deficiency due to beta cell destruction Type 2 Insulin resistance by tissues Decrease in insulin production Insulin resistance syndrome-Metabolic syndrome
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Diabetes Mellitus Diagnostic Criteria Plasma glucose >200mg/dL and symptoms of diabetes Fasting plasma glucose >126mg/dL Plasma glucose >200mg/dL after oral glucose tolerance test
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Diabetic Therapy: Type 1 Non-physiologic Regimen Useful for newly diagnosed Daily injections of long-acting insulin Physiologic Regimen Mimics normal insulin secretion Basal and prandial insulin Combine quick and slow onset insulins Goal – Avoid hypoglycemia and improve Hemoglobin A1c levels
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Diabetic Therapy: Type 2 Weight reduction Dietary modifications Exercise Oral antidiabetic agents Insulin if Hgb A1c >8% - bedtime basal insulin with daytime oral agents
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Insulin Acts like endogenous insulin Types – onset, peak, duration of effects Rapid Short (regular) Intermediate Long Preparation Units 100 units per milliliter (U-100)
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Insulin: Regular (Humulin R, Novolin R) Pharmacotherapeutics Type 1 Type 2 – not controlled with other therapies Treat hyperkalemia
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This note was uploaded on 05/30/2011 for the course NUR 212 taught by Professor Susanhampson during the Spring '11 term at St. Xavier.

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Drugs Affecting Blood Glucose Levels - Drugs Affecting...

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