spring10antibioticlectpart1

spring10antibioticlectpart1 - Principles of Antibiotic...

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Principles of Antibiotic Therapy Susan Hampson
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Some Definitions…. Antimicrobial Antibiotic Microbe Types of microbes Pathogen 
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Classifying Antimicrobial Drugs By susceptible organism Antibacterial Narrow, broad spectrum; Mycobacterium Antiviral Antifungal Antiparasitic Antihelmintic 
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Classifying Antimicrobial Drugs By mechanism of action Inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis Alteration in membrane permeability Inhibition of protein synthesis Inhibition of synthesis of bacterial RNA and  DNA Interference with cellular metabolism
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Inhibition of Cell Wall Synthesis Antimicrobial agent weakens cell wall Drug inhibits enzyme needed for  completion of cell wall synthesis Drug activates chemicals that destroy the  cell wall Drug prevents synthesis of precursor  chemicals needed to form cell wall 
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Inhibition of Protein Synthesis Drug binds chemically within bacteria to  prevent protein synthesis Essential functions stopped Bacteria dies Bactericidal vs. Bacteriostatic drug
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What Is Selective Toxicity? Drug is able to injure target cell (bacteria)  without injuring other cells Achieved in several ways High level of drug in microbe Drug works at specific site/step Drug action harms microbe more than host
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A Word About Microbial Resistance. . Organism highly responsive to antibiotic  becomes less susceptible or loses  susceptibility completely
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Factors Contributing to Antimicrobial Resistance Inherent resistance Acquired resistance Cross resistance Nosocomial infections
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Emergence of Drug Resistant Microbes Broad spectrum antibiotic use Inadequate drug concentration in tissues Insufficient duration of therapy Inappropriate prophylactic use of  antibiotics
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Selecting Antimicrobial Therapy Identify pathogen Drug susceptibility Drug spectrum Drug dose Duration of therapy Site of action Patient assessment
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Let’s Review Now…. . What is the principle of selective toxicity?  Why is it important? Differentiate between bacteriostatic and  bactericidal drugs. What important health status 
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spring10antibioticlectpart1 - Principles of Antibiotic...

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