studentcnsdrugsfall09part1

studentcnsdrugsfall09part1 - Central Nervous System Drugs...

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Central Nervous System Drugs Parkinson’s disease Alzheimer’s disease Seizure disorders Susan Hampson
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The Brain Cerebrum – left and right hemispheres Lobes Frontal: motor cortex, thought, morality, ethical behavior Parietal: somatosensory cortex Temporal: hearing, equilibrium, emotion, memory Occipital: visual cortex
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Other Cerebral Structures Limbic System Encircles the brainstem Most closely associated with emotion and memory Olefaction Problems with this system result in short-term memory impairment Damaged parietal, temporal lobes and limbic system are found in Alzheimer’s disease
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Other Cerebral Structures Basal ganglia Initiation and planning of learned motor activities Incorporate sensory information about muscles Cortical input about desired motor activities Cerebellar signals about timing and coordination
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Cerebellum Coordinate and smooth movements Maintain posture and balance Lesions of the cerebellum result in ataxia, intention tremor, past pointing, and dysdiadochokinesia (failure of rapid movements)
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Alzheimer’s Disease
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Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology Gross diffuse atrophy of cerebral cortex Neurons lose their dendrites Plaques develop between cells Acetylcholine and serotonin decrease by as much as 50%
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Alzheimer’s Disease: 10 Warning Signs Memory loss that affects job skills Difficulty performing familiar tasks Problems with language Disorientation to time and place Poor or decreased judgment Problems with abstract thinking Misplacing things Changes in behavior or mood Changes in personality Loss of initiative
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Treating Alzheimer’s Disease Goals of therapy: Improve/control decline in function and cognition Control undesirable behavioral manifestations The group of drugs used to treat Alzheimer’s is: Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors(Parsympathomimetics) Drugs in this group include Rivastigmine (Exelon), Donepezil (Aricept)
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Rivastigmine (Exelon) Indicated for treating mild to moderate Alzheimer’s Disease Increases memory, cognition, ability to perform ADLs Given orally twice a day. Can be given with food. Has a transdermal form Works by inhibiting AChE. Result is more Ach available (conduction of
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Rivastigmine (Exelon): Adverse Effects Most COMMON is GI distress Most SERIOUS is bradycardia
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Rivastigmine (Exelon) Nursing Considerations/Family
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This note was uploaded on 05/30/2011 for the course NUR 212 taught by Professor Susanhampson during the Spring '11 term at St. Xavier.

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studentcnsdrugsfall09part1 - Central Nervous System Drugs...

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