sueBasic Principles_Sp_10

sueBasic Principles_Sp_10 - General Pharmacologic...

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General Pharmacologic Principles NURS 212 Introduction to P harmacological Concepts Related to Nursing
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Pharmaceutics = Dosage Form How dosage form influences both Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Drug forms: Solid: tablet, capsule, powder Liquid: solution or suspension Dosage forms: Enteral Parenteral Topical
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Nursing Process Pharmaceutic Disintegration and dissolution Rate limiting
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Pharmacokinetics
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Pharmaco kinetics What the Body does to the drug Explains what happens to a drug as it passes through the body Includes: AD ME Absorption Distribution Metabolism Elimination Body → Drug
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Absorption The process by which a drug passes from its site of administration into the bloodstream This requires the passage of the drug across cell membranes, unless the drug is given directly into the bloodstream (i.e., IV) Site → Bloodstream
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Pharmacokinetics Absorption Processes of drug absorption
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The amount of the drug that reaches its site of action is referred to as its “bioavailability.” Comparison is always made with IV administration, because IV drugs are “100% bioavailable” How much is absorbed depends on 5 factors
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Factors that Affect Absorption Drug Characteristics Route of Administration Cell membrane characteristics and GI mucosa and motility Food or Drug interactions Liver metabolism
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Important! The more lipid-soluble a drug is, the faster it is absorbed. Non-ionized drugs are more lipid soluble Ionized drugs are more water-soluble Ionized drugs carry an electrical charge ; non-ionized drugs do not
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Drug absorption via the oral route is highly variable and dependent on the presence or absence of food and the pH of the stomach and intestine
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Drugs that are given orally are subject to first-pass metabolism, which reduces bioavailability
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First Pass Effect Drugs taken orally are absorbed from the GI tract Carried to liver by the portal circulation Undergo initial metabolism before reaching site of action Drug is never 100% bioavailable because of this effect
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What adjustment is needed in the dose of a med with a high first-pass effect??
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Sublingual route: direct absorption via capillary bed under tongue What influence, if any, would first-pass effect have on drugs that are administered by this route??
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Rectal route: absorption is unpredictable
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Parenteral routes Intravenous: no barrier to absorption; rapid onset of action Intramuscular: absorption depends on blood flow to the area Subcutaneous Intradermal
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Inhalation route Generally used when local effects on respiratory system are desired
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sueBasic Principles_Sp_10 - General Pharmacologic...

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