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15) Ears 0310 - x A A x External Ear Pinna or Aurical A...

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External Ear: Pinna or Aurical x A canal or cul-de-sac 2.5 to 3 cm long ( external auditory canal ) See 15-1 and 15-2 A Helix, Antihelix, Tragus, Antitragus, Lobule, External auditory meatus A The canal is lined with glands which secrete Cerumen x Tympanic Membrane separates external from internal, pearly gray and creates a prominent cone of light in the anteroinferior quadrant, which is a reflection of otoscope light.
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Tympanic Membrane: is oval and slightly concave, pulled in at the center by one of the middle ear ossicles, the malleus and is made up of umbo, manubrium, short process and pars flaccida. A The Middle Ear is a tiny air-filled cavity inside the temporal bone containing 3 bones: malleus, incus, and stapes
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Middle Ear: 3 functions: A It conducts sound vibrations, A it protects the inner ear by reducing amplitude of loud sounds and A its Eustachian tubes allows equalization of air pressure so TM cannot rupture.
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Inner Ear: Contains bony labyrinth a key to equilibrium containing the vestibule, semicircular canals and cochlea.
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Hearing: Peripheral, brainstem and cerebral cortex. A Pathways of Hearing 15-4 A Peripheral level: the ear transmits sound and converts its vibrations into electrical impulses, which can be analyzed by the brain
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Hearing Loss A Conductive hearing loss is related a mechanica l dysfunction of the external or middle ear usually caused by cerumen, foreign bodies, perforated TM, pus or serum in the middle ear and otosclerosis
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Hearing loss: A Sensorineural loss is related to pathology of the inner ear, cranial nerve VIII ,
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