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Neurological AssessmentNervous System: Two partsCentral Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cordPeripheral Nervous SystemCN: 12 pairsSpinal nerves: 31 pairsCarries sensory messages to CNS from sensory receptors, motor messages from CNS to muscles and glands
Neurological AssessmentCentral Nervous SystemCerebral cortex: center for higher functionsHemisphereLobes: Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporalWernicke’s areaBroca’s area
Neurological AssessmentCNSBasal Ganglia: control movementThalamus: relay stationHypothalamus: control centerCerebellum: coordination, equilibriumBrain Stem: midbrain, pons, medullaSpinal Cord
Neurological AssessmentCNS Pathways: SensorySpinothalamic Tract: transmits pain, temperature, light touchPosterior Tract: position (proprioception), vibration, fine touch
Neurological AssessmentCNS Pathways: MotorPyramidal (Corticospinal) Tract: higher motor system which produces very skilled and purposeful movements – writingExtrapyramidal Tract: lower motor system which maintains muscle tone and controls body movements, such as walking
Neurological AssessmentCerebellar System: coordinates movement, maintains equilibrium and postureUpper and Lower Motor Neurons: convey impulses from motor areas of cerebral cortex to the lower motor neurons which are the final pathwaysUpper motor neuron disease: CVA, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosisLower motor neuron disease: spinal cord lesions, polio