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HIST104MidtermStudyGuide - HIST 104 Midterm Study Guide...

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HIST 104 Midterm Study Guide Chapters 1-4 1) Zoroaster : monotheistic religion following Ahura Mazda (“wise lord”/ source of all good) and rejecting Ahriman (source of all evil). Believers thought Ahura Mazda would ultimately win the cosmic struggle, however thought that all people had the right to choose between good and evil. Believers were tolerant of religious decent and faced a life long struggle. Pg 14. 2) Monophysite : pertaining to (mainly middle eastern) Christians who believed that Christ had only one nature, wholly divine; view condemned by the council of Chalcedon in 451. Were centered in Alexandria, Egypt and were considered heretics. 3) Sasanid : Persian ruling family from 227-651. Would pay smaller Arabic tribes to fight against the Romans because it was easier that training an entire army to do so. 4) muruwwa : Pre-Islamic code of Arab virtues. Most of it was adopted into Islam. Included: the importance of bravery in battle, protection of the weak/hospitality (one of the most important traits in Islam), patience in misfortune, fidelity to ones word, loyalty to the tribe (Asabia). 5) Ka’ba : Muslim shrine in Mecca housing the Black Stone, serving as the focal point for the Hajj, and setting the direction for Muslim worship. 6) Hijra : Emigration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 (Year 1 of the Muslim Calendar). 7) Five Pillars : 1. Shahada: profession of faith, and acknowledging that there is no god but God and that Muhammad is God’s messenger. 2. Salat: ritual prayer that must be performed 5 times daily, facing the direction of the Ka’ba in Mecca. Collective prayer occurs at noon on Friday. 3. Sawm: Fasting during Ramadan from sun up until sun down for the entire month. 4. Zakat: all Muslims must give a specified share of their income or property to help provide for the needy. In essence it is sharing. 5. Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca during the 12 th month of the Muslim year that all Muslims must perform to the best of their ability during the course of their life. How did physical geography shape the culture of Arabia? Look at the conclusion on pg. 23. The harsh environment required that people remain in small tribes composed of extended families and remain constantly on the move. This constant movement gave them no chance to develop architecture, sculpture, or painting, instead they created another form of expression through poetry and the creation of the muruwwa. Pg. 21 How did the interests of the Byzantine Empire and the Sasanids affect the tribes of Arabia? The Byzantine Empire and the Sasanids had client Arab tribes that they would pay handsomely and furnish with the trappings of a monarchy in return for military service. As
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a result the tribes on the Arabian peninsula were in a constant state of warfare. (bottom paragraph pg. 22).
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HIST104MidtermStudyGuide - HIST 104 Midterm Study Guide...

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