SOCY 323 FINAL Study Guide

SOCY 323 FINAL Study Guide - 1 SOCY 323 FINAL Study Guide...

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SOCY 323 FINAL Study Guide INTRO 1) Difference between deviant behavior and criminal behavior Deviant behavior violates a social norm Criminal behavior violates a legal norm 2) Difference between macro and micro theory Micro theory deals with small groups, such as behaviors within a gang community Macro theory deals with broad groups and would help explain national statistics on crime and violence. 3) Difference between criminology and criminal sociology Criminology is the study of crime in general or from any perspective Criminal sociology is the study of crime within society 4) Difference between consensus and conflict perspective Consensus perspective- states that people in society get along and follow a specific set of social norms. Conflict Perspective- a disagreement is common with people with conflicting values (conflicting society – class, race, gender) PART I. Foundations 1)Classical School History- Political: beginnings of critiques against monarchies. New democratic theories develop. Baron de Montesquieu calls for separation of powers. Economic: beginnings of capitalist economic system, classes develop. Theory- Society: human conduct is based on a principle of economic rationality, (based on reasons that relate to cost and profit and an avoidance of pain and seeking of pleasure. == Hedonistic Perspective). Crime: FREE WILL, crime is a choice Policy- 3 important principles: 1. Emphasis on due process- criminal gets fair trial and numerous other rights 2. Punishment should be certain rather that severe (certainty of a particular punishment for a particular crime). Beccaria opposed the death penalty because he thought it was not a deterrence against crime and that a punishment that was swift and certain was a better deterrence. Thought that death was to severe a punishment and would cause society to view the government as dictatorial. Also, he believed it would cause members of the jury to show sympathy towards convicted criminals. 1
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3. Government intervention has to be kept to a minimal. Jeremy Bentham was also a representative of the Classical School 2)Positivist School History- central aspect was the beginnings of the industrial revolution with an emphasis on science and technology. Auguste Comte introduces the term “sociology” Adolphe Quetelet was a scholar from Belgium who collected numerical statistics of crime. Cesare Lombroso was an Italian criminologist who developed the theory that crime had biological causes. Known as the “father of modern criminology” Enrico Ferri was also a representative of the positivist school Theory- Society: society is something that can be explained ( cause(x) effect(y) ) Crime: crime is caused by certain biological, psychological, or sociological factors, it emphasizes the cause and effect relationship to explain why crime takes place. Policy-
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SOCY 323 FINAL Study Guide - 1 SOCY 323 FINAL Study Guide...

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