HIST 378 � Midterm Study Guide

HIST 378 � Midterm Study Guide - HIST 378 Urban...

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HIST 378 – Urban Expansion in Europe Midterm Study Guide 1. Urbanization: measure of the densification of a society as whole Growth in the proportion or fracture of population living within cities. Can vary. Dependent upon the overall population growth, surplus rural population, and over industrialization. 2. Urban Growth: the growth of population within one urban area. It is the expansion of one particular area on the map. Eventually would outstrip urbanization as cities tend to only grow where new political arrangements begin to express themselves. Cities begin to grow out of proportion to the rest of the countryside because serving the surrounding populations is overshadowed by the need for global trade. 3. Malthusian Cycle: when the ability of the lands resources to meet the needs of the surrounding population no longer exists. Malthus proposed that human populations would continue to multiply until some existential even took place reducing the population (famine and plague become more possible). The population always grows faster than the resources that are available to sustain it. In the Medieval era, the Malthusian cycle does not necessarily apply because populations would tend to correct themselves before the onset of war or plague. This was because of the practice of the dowry as a social convention that delayed marriage and as a result, childbirth. These marriage patterns along with the overall life expectancy kept populations in check. 4. Futile System: hierarchal system based on landowning. (also known as the manor system) which came into existence at the end of the 9 th century. Lords would provide justice with their own courts of law. was a system designed around the self sufficiency of the manor. Bulk of the population were serfs at this point. They were not free persons and gave the bulk of their products to the lord. o They were not allowed mobility, a market system, or opportunity to choose their own occupation. The functions of the medieval towns by the 11 th century were primary geared towards protection. o 2 nd function was as a market center they were inside the fortresses for the most part and accompanied by religious and civic centers o 3 rd function is ecclesiastical. Religious orders enjoy prestige within these fortresses. Bishops blend religious and civil authority and administration. Had secular functions as well (collect taxes, oversee courts, etc.) 5. Mercantilism: idea that is necessary to accumulate the wealth of the monarch (as oligarchic families often supported rising monarchs) so that you can export more than you import. This was not a system of free trade and was more of a
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HIST 378 � Midterm Study Guide - HIST 378 Urban...

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