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HISTORY 102 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE IDS League of Nations: International organization founded after WWI to solve international disputes through arbitration. Germany leaves in 1933. Benito Mussolini : Italian founder of the Fascist party who came into power of Italy in 1922, allied himself with Hitler and the Nazis during WWII. Fascism in Italy set the stage for Nazi Germany as many of Mussolini’s ideas were used by Hitler. (charismatic leader, social programs, nationalistic/militaristic) Fascism: a radical authoritarian nationalist ideology that aims to create a single party state headed by a dictator who seeks national unity by requiring individuals to subordinate self interest to the collective self interest of the nation. (anti-socialist and communist) Adolf Hitler: Nazi leader during WWII who orchestrated the Holocaust. Came to power in Germany in 1933 during economic and political confusion. Blamed the Jews for Germany’s problems and rallied the German people under highly nationalistic viewpoints that resembled Mussolini. Committed suicide in 1945 during the impending invasion of Berlin. Nazi Ideology: stemmed greatly from the 19 th century idea of Social Darwinism in a violent and racist way. Hitler attempted to represent himself as the embodiment of the German nation and not the leader of a political party. He represented himself as the party of the youth and was highly against the decline of moral and family values. Viewed history as a race struggle and had a major goal of creating more living space (Lebensraum) for the Aryan race. Volkswagen: created under Hitler in order to create consent among the German people because it allowed everyone to afford cars. Mein Kampf: (1924) Hitler’s autobiography and political manifesto written while he was in prison. Combined anti-Semitism and anticommunism to set out the theory that Germany had been betrayed by its enemies and that the country needed strong leadership to regain international prominence. Created sympathy for Hitler amongst the German people and created nationalism as well as setting the foundation for the future racial discrimination against Jews. Lebensraum: (living space) Hitler’s idea that Germany must acquire adequate living space to allow the Aryan population to grow. Hitler thought that Germany would disintegrate if it did not expand. Volksgemeinschaft: propaganda campaign to further beliefs of pseudo-science behind Social Darwinism. Depicted the ideal Aryan community. Policy of Appeasement: Introduced by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in the years leading up to WWII. Attempted to accommodate and negotiate peace with aggressive nations based on the belief that another global war was unimaginable, that Germany had mistreated in the Treaty of Versailles, and a fear that Fascist Germany protected the West from the spread of Soviet Communism. Allowed Germany to gradually gain territory
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This note was uploaded on 05/31/2011 for the course HIST 102 taught by Professor Osokina during the Spring '10 term at South Carolina.

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