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HISTORY 102 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE THE REFORMATION: Religious and political movement in the 16 th century (1517) Europe that led to the breakaway of Protestant groups from the Catholic Church notable figures include: MARTIN LUTHER who published 95 theses and nailed them to church doors. He was bothered by the catholic churches sale of indulgences or transfer of holiness that was viewed as the purchase of a good deed. Made 3 crucial points: 1. The bible is the only source of authority, not church hierarchy 2. Priesthood of all believer you don’t need an intermediary to god 3. Salvation is gained by faith alone. HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Induced over 100 years of religious warfare Challenged Rome’s powerful religious authority Argued that the catholic church was corrupt Created a more religiously diverse Europe Mercantilism, Absolutism, population growth and urbanization, and the scientific revolution helped transform Europe into a world power. MERCHANTILISM: popular western belief between 1600-1800 that a country’s wealth and power was based on a favorable balance of trade (more exports fewer imports) and the accumulation of precious metals. CONTEXT: international commerce was growing as the New World became more accessible and new port cities emerged in Europe. TRIANGULAR TRADE: the 18 th century commercial Atlantic shipping pattern where raw materials were sent to Europe, manufactured goods to Africa, and slaves to the new world. HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Number of slaves increase dramatically and become critical to maintaining new world economy New products (such as coffee, tobacco, sugar, tulips) become the foundation of the world economy in goods & slaves. Silver from new world allows for trade with asia. State policies are central to development of trade Geo-politics come to revolve around commercial policy Beginning of modern capitalist system ABSOLUTISM: form of government in which one body, usually the monarch, controls the right to make war, tax, judge, and coin money. Was used as a term to describe state monarchies in 17 th and 18 th century Europe. Drove rulers quest for power, and weakened the political power of Rome. CONTEXT: Louis XIV of France “the sun king”, claimed he had power by divine right. VERSAILLIES: splendid palace outside Paris where Louis XIV and his nobles resided HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Major aim of absolutist powers is the consolidation of powers and wealth Leaders attempted to get rid of nobility and clergymen Rise of new bureaucracy Increase in warfare
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Rise of state building, unification of state. ENLIGHTENMENT: intellectual movement stressing natural laws and classifications in nature, in 18 th century Europe. Characterized by the search for authority, science becomes source of truth and reason. ISSAC NEWTON:
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