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Test 2 Study Guide

Test 2 Study Guide - Anthropology 102 Second Midterm Study...

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Anthropology 102- Second Midterm Study Guide Politics Minimalist approach- government and political phenomena exist in formal political institutions Maximalist approach developed by anthropologists and said that they occur in: (1) Informal institutions in unlikely contexts such as witchcraft and kinship. (2) Treating a wide range of behaviors Politics (a maximalist approach) Process and method of making decisions for groups Acquisition and use and distribution of power at many different levels of society (domestic, clans, political parties, church, formal government, citizens) Take into account forces that drive society (human, divine, supernatural) The pursuit by individual gain (financial gain, increase prestige, increase in spiritual power, authority and influence Legitimacy- a process that is strongly consensual The right to exercise power The conferral of moral authority A degree of the right of an individual (or group) to exercise For a leader, it is always fleeting. Political Rhetoric and ideology The choice of argument an individual or group uses to acquire legitimacy. o Sway and manipulate emotions, values symbols and words o Provides a window into identity and structure- how to respond to rhetoric o The rhetoric leads to a choice of faith and trust in a leader which leads to legitimacy o Power and control through coercion- violence, extortion, etc. Terrorism- use of force against civilians to bring about political change Widen scope of targets to undermine confidence and to create confusion ad anxiety In Middle East, how ordinary people are recruited and influence by different types of rhetoric (how it will effect them, psychologically, the audience-who will see them) Readings Poor Man, Rich Man, Big Man, Chief: Political Types in Melanesia and Polynesia (Sahlins) He looks at two different political arrangements, the Melanesian (Big Man) and the Polynesian and tries to figure out the differences between the ways that the power operates and is structures, how relationships are constructed and how they
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work in society today. In pro-colonial Hawaii, they were under the domination of rigid hereditary chiefdoms where they were descended from gods and had supernatural power. This represents a Polynesian society where there were hierarchical status levels but there was no real legal structure to exert force. These two political differences are in every aspect of life- religion, art, kinship, groupings, economics and politic Big Man (Melanesian)- reciprocity; persuasion (not coercion); possible big men are not bron into to their role, but they become prominent members socially with connections and persuasive ability; like entrepreneurs; gift giving is very important and collections of things are provided by everyone and close contacts and kinship related people are expected to give more; this gift giving also represents an investment because they are suppose to be paid back but sometimes you try to embarrass another group by making a gift so large that they can not
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