SI Week 5 Whale Phylogeny

SI Week 5 Whale - A Whale of a Mystery Whale What group of What mammals represent the closest living relatives to the Order Cetacea Order The

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Unformatted text preview: A Whale of a Mystery! Whale What group of What mammals represent the closest living relatives to the Order Cetacea? Order The closest living relatives to the Order Cetacea The (whales and dolphins) are in the… (whales A. Order Sirenia (manatees and A. Order dugongs) dugongs) B. Order Perissodactyla (odd-toed Order ungulates, e.g., tapirs, rhinos, horses) horses) C. Order Artiodactyla (even-toed Order ungulates, e.g., hippos, pigs, camels, giraffes) camels, D. Order Carnivora (meat eaters, Order e.g., bears, seals, cats, dogs) e.g., The closest living relatives of the Order Cetacea The (whales and dolphins) are in the Artiodactyla! (whales A. Order Sirenia (manatees and A. Order dugongs) dugongs) B. Order Perissodactyla (oddtoed ungulates, e.g., tapirs, toed rhinos, horses) rhinos, C. Order Artiodactyla (even-toed Order ungulates, e.g., hippos, pigs, camels, giraffes) camels, D. Order Carnivora (meat eaters, Order e.g., bears, seals, cats, dogs) e.g., How do we know that? Systematics, which includes… Systematics, 1. Taxonomy: part of systematics that 1. focuses on identifying and naming focuses 2. Phenetics: uses phenotypes (morphological and behavioral traits, etc.) to classify organisms etc.) a. Potential Problem: homologous vs. Potential analogous features analogous 3. Phylogenetics: uses shared derived characters to determine evolutionary relationships a. Can be morphological, behavioral, a. Can physiological, etc., or based on DNA sequencing sequencing Cladistics Cladistics 1. Cladistics uses cladograms, diagrams which Cladistics cladograms diagrams show ancestral relations between organisms show 1. A cladogram is a visual reconstruction of the cladogram evolutionary history of a group of animals evolutionary a. based on the distribution of newly evolved traits based b. drawn as branching diagrams b. c. new traits noted at the appropriate branching points 1. Organisms are grouped into clades, without Organisms necessarily putting them into hierarchical groups such as Order, Family, Genus, etc. groups 1. Traditionally, cladograms were generated on Traditionally, the basis of morphological characters. Today, DNA and RNA sequencing data are commonly used to generate cladograms. used Simple Cladogram Simple Three-Domain System Three-Domain Woese, C., O. Kandler, M. Wheelis. 1990. Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the Woese, domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. Proceedings National Academy of Science 87(12):4576-9 domains • Domains Bacteria & Archaea – contain only prokaryotes contain • Greek pro + karyon (nut or kernel) Greek pro karyon • “pre-nucleus” • Domain Eucaryota • Greek eu (good, noble, or true) + karyon Greek eu karyon • “true nucleus” – iincludes 3 Kingdoms (plants, animals, ncludes fungi) + protists fungi) Using DNA for Cladistics Using In lab you learned that mammalian milk In contains a protein called beta-casein. The gene segment that encodes for beta-casein is 60 base-pairs (bp) long beta-casein You compared this segment among You cetaceans, artiodactyls, and perissodactyls. You found that cetaceans are most closely related to _________, which belong to the Order _________________. _________________. Today we are going to expand on that Today information a bit… information …learning more about… a. Phylogeny and DNA sequencing to investigate Phylogeny and enforce laws related to conservation of biodiversity biodiversity b. The proposal for Order Cetartiodactyla, i.e., the The proposal that Cetacea and Artiodactyla should be combined into one Order be c. Comparison of phylogenetic trees created from Comparison different hypotheses regarding the relatedness of cetaceans and artiodactyls of d. Understanding the need to look at more than Understanding one gene sequence to determine relatedness among living organisms among ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/31/2011 for the course BIO 2108 taught by Professor Ammons during the Spring '11 term at Georgia Southern University .

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