HOW TO USE QUOTES
IN A RESEARCH PAPER
(See section on rules for parenthetical references in this book.)
Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper
The first time you cite a source, it is almost always a good idea to mention its author(s),
title, and genre (book, article, or web page, etc.).
If the source is central to your work, you may
want to introduce it in a separate sentence or two, summarizing its importance and main ideas.
But often you can just tag this information onto the beginning or end of a sentence.
the following sentence puts information about the author and work before the quotation:
Milan Kundera, in his book The Art of the Novel
, suggests that “if the novel
should really disappear, it will do so not because it has exhausted its powers but
because it exists in a world grown alien to it.”
You may also want to describe the authors if they are not famous, or if you have reason
to believe your reader does not know them.
You should say whether they are economic analysts,
artists, physicists, etc.
If you do not know anything about the authors, and cannot find any
information, it is best to say where you found the source and why you believe it is credible and
In an essay presented at an Asian Studies conference held at Duke
University, Sheldon Garon analyzes the relation of state, labor-
unions, and small businesses in Japan between the 1950s and
If you have already introduced the author and work from which you are citing, and you
are obviously referring to the same work, you probably don’t need to mention them again.
However, if you have cited other sources and then go back to one you had cited earlier, it is a
good idea to mention at least the author’s name again (and the work if you have referred to more
than one by this author) to avoid confusion.