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Lifting_the_Veil - LIFTING THE VEIL Darlene Clark Hine How...

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LIFTING THE VEIL… Darlene Clark Hine
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How did AA women deal with 3 ½ years of enslavement/oppression? 1. By protesting racial and sexual discrimination; 2. By avoiding it; 3. By rationalizing the psychological impact of racism and sexism; 4. By transcending their victimization.
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Forces affecting AA women Before the Civil War majority of AA women were enslaved Industrialization and urbanization led to transformation of lives and work experiences of AA Social upheavals and proliferation of racial/sexual stereotypes of late 19 th & 20 th centuries affected how AA women defined themselves
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Stereotyping To stereotype is to take a particular characteristic observed in some members of a group and generalize it to all Everyone engages in stereotyping because it is the brain’s way of simplifying and managing information and it ensures our survival
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Stereotyping cont. Pygmalion Effect Based on Rosenberg’s study of the effects of teacher expectations on students Revealed that when teachers had high expectations of students, students exhibited higher performance than when students had low expectations of students
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Stereotyping cont. Stereotype Threat Based on studies by Steele & Aronson (1995) When AA students presented with negative racial stereotypes before taking verbal portion of GRE, their performance was worse than when AA students were not presented with this stereotype
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Role of AA women in family Scholarly work ignores social, emotional, physical, and economic roles AA women played Bore primary responsibility for reproducing slave labor force Ensured continuation of Black race during and after end of enslavement Nurtured the sick Performed all domestic chores Wet-nurse White children Fulfilled conjugal needs of men Endured sexual assaults of White men and vengeance of mistress
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Most challenging task After enslavement ended, most challenging task facing AA women was how to maintain a relatively healthy opinion of themselves as sexual beings and it remains so today. Abused AA women had to encourage mates to show self- restraint when they were raped, or risk losing their husband or father of their children WW powerless and blamed AA women for their sexual abuse; often inflicted abuse on them AA women forced to construct sexual self-image based on self-reliance
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Impact of Enslavement How might the enslavement experiences of Afrikan women and men affected the relationships that they have with each other?
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Potential Effects Black women Feelings of worthlessness Sense that their values lie in sex and/ or work only Fear that they cannot rely on Black men anger & hostility Black men Devaluing Black women Perceiving Black women as sex objects Feeling that they cannot trust BW Feeling unable to protect BW shame & withdrawal
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Roles of Black Women & Men Both engaged in hard phys8ical labor, chopped and picked cotton, felled trees,
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