Review Sheet_Exam 1

Review Sheet_Exam 1 - PSY 101 Prof Swets Exam 1 Review...

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PSY 101, Prof. Swets Exam 1 Review Sheet Chapter 1 objectives Be able to identify the definition of psychology. The scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes. Classical Greek philosophers such as Aristotle and 19 th century psychologists such as Donders and Wundt both answered questions about the way the mind works. Be able to identify differences between their approaches. Donders- believed decision making cannot be observed directly, must be inferred Wundt- Used several techniques to study how the mind works, reaction times/basic sensory/analytic introspection Be prepared to identify positive and negative outcomes of the behaviorist movement. Positive- careful attention to empirical and scientific standards, no more introspection, consciousness largely ignored Negative- threw mind out with consciousness, cognition ignored for 50 years Know what scientist pioneered the behaviorist perspective. Be prepared to identify examples of ways in which the following psychological perspectives might account for various examples of psychological phenomena: evolutionary- survival of the fittest outlook , sociocultural- the realization that culture has an effect on people, not just biology , humanistic- belief that people are innately good, capable of choice , and cognitive- the belief that every action is thought about before hand . Know generally how the biological perspective would account for various examples of human behavior. Everything is a result of chemical and electrical activities taking place within and between nerve cells. Be familiar with the name of the general method psychologists use to draw scientific conclusions about behavior and mental processes (hint: it’s the same method chemistry and biology use to draw their scientific conclusions). The scientific method Be able to distinguish from a list of options whether psychologists study observable or unobservable behaviors, and whether they study humans, animals, or both. Chapter 2 objectives Know the meaning of the following terms well enough to be able to pick out examples of each one: placebo effect- behavior change as a result of belief about a treatment, not treatment itself , confounding variable- a variable the experimenter purposely introduced that effects the participants behavior , dependent variable- the outcome from the manipulation of the independent variable , independent variable- a factor that can be manipulated by the researcher Be able to identify the definition of determinism. All events, physical, mental or behavioral, are “determined” by specific casual factors that are potentially knowable
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Be able to identify procedures researchers undergo to increase objectivity in their studies Standardization- treating each participant the same by using uniform procedures Given a list of options, be able to choose one that best describes the basic idea underlying the experimental method
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Review Sheet_Exam 1 - PSY 101 Prof Swets Exam 1 Review...

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