Practice Final - Fats can be synthesized, degraded, and...

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1. Acetoacetate is a ketone body. The function that acetoacetate serves in metabolism is that it is: A. The precursor of HMG-CoA in synthesis of cholesterol. B. The acceptor of amino groups from amino acids in protein catabolism. C. Molecule that transports acetyl-CoA from the liver to other tissues in times of energy demand in those other tissues. D. Molecule that transports lactate from muscles for conversion to glucose in the liver. E. None of the above. Answer: C 2. Which of the following amino acids are essential (cannot be biosynthesized by mammals): A. Alanine B. Phenylalanine C. Aspartate D. Glutamate E. None of the above Answer: B 3. Which enzyme(s), in nucleotide biosynthesis pathways, uses a substrate channeling mechanism? A) aspartate transcarbamylase B) nucleoside monophosphate kinase C) glutamine phosphoribosyl amidotransferase D) a and b E) a and c Answer: C 4. What factors regulate fatty acid metabolic pathways? Answer:
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Unformatted text preview: Fats can be synthesized, degraded, and stored, and these processes are coordinately controlled in organs and tissues by circulating hormones. Glucagon, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which are released when energy is needed, increase cAMP levels, which triggers phosphorylation events that control the activity of enzymes such as hormone-sensitive lipase. Insulin has an opposite effect, and the ratios of the various hormones are important in determining the rate and direction of lipid metabolism. Glucose levels, phosphorylation of enzymes, allosteric activation, ATP and ADP concentrations, and other factors influence short- and long-term metabolic regulation. 5. What enzyme(s) convert(s) deoxynucleoside diphosphates to the corresponding triphosphates? Answer: The only enzyme is nucleoside diphosphate kinase. This enzyme has no preference for ribose over deoxyribose sugars, or for the specific base of the substrate....
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This note was uploaded on 05/27/2011 for the course CHEM 114B chem 114B taught by Professor Weng during the Fall '11 term at UCSD.

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Practice Final - Fats can be synthesized, degraded, and...

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