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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Cognitive and Information Sciences SymSys 100 / Ling 144 / Psych 132 / Phil 190 Spring 2011 Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 1 Outline for today: 1. A Brief (Pre-)History of Cognitive Science 2. Introductions by Jay McClelland and Johan van Benthem 3. Overview of the course 4. Practicalities, introducing TAs, course mechanics Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 2 Prehistory of Cognitive Science A Brief History of Cognitive Science (Up to 1960) Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 3 Prehistory of Cognitive Science What is cognitive science? Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 4 Prehistory of Cognitive Science What is cognitive science? “Trying to speak for cognitive science, as if cognitive scientists had but one voice, is a bum’s game.” (George A. Miller, 1978) Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 4 Prehistory of Cognitive Science General subject matter: All aspects of mind and behavior Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 5 Prehistory of Cognitive Science General subject matter: All aspects of mind and behavior ￿ Cognition: Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 5 Prehistory of Cognitive Science General subject matter: All aspects of mind and behavior ￿ Cognition: • • • • • Language Memory Perception Problem Solving ... Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 5 Prehistory of Cognitive Science General subject matter: All aspects of mind and behavior ￿ ￿ Cognition: • • • • • Language Memory Perception Problem Solving ... Emotion Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 5 Prehistory of Cognitive Science General subject matter: All aspects of mind and behavior ￿ ￿ ￿ Cognition: • • • • • Language Memory Perception Problem Solving ... Emotion Motivation Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 5 Prehistory of Cognitive Science General subject matter: All aspects of mind and behavior ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿ Cognition: • • • • • Language Memory Perception Problem Solving ... Emotion Motivation Control of motor action Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 5 Prehistory of Cognitive Science General subject matter: All aspects of mind and behavior ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿ Cognition: • • • • • Language Memory Perception Problem Solving ... Emotion Motivation Control of motor action Social interaction ... Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 5 Prehistory of Cognitive Science ￿ General methodological assumption: The same types of mathematical tools can be used to study mind and mind-like artifacts. Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 6 Prehistory of Cognitive Science ￿ General methodological assumption: The same types of mathematical tools can be used to study mind and mind-like artifacts. ￿ An overarching theme is computation and information processing. “If you can build it, you can understand it.” Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 6 Prehistory of Cognitive Science ￿ General methodological assumption: The same types of mathematical tools can be used to study mind and mind-like artifacts. ￿ An overarching theme is computation and information processing. “If you can build it, you can understand it.” ￿ From the Bulletin entry for the Symbolic Systems Program: The observation that both human beings and computers can manipulate symbols lies at the heart of Symbolic Systems, an interdisciplinary program focusing on the relationship between natural and artificial systems that represent, process, and act on information. Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 6 Prehistory of Cognitive Science Cognitive Science as inherently interdisciplinary: ￿ Psychology ￿ Computer Science ￿ Linguistics ￿ Philosophy ￿ Neuroscience ￿ Logic ￿ Statistics ￿ Cybernetics ￿ Evolutionary Biology ￿ Anthropology ￿ Communication ￿ Microeconomics ￿ ... Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 7 Prehistory of Cognitive Science Ren´ Descartes (1596-1650) e ￿ Before Descartes, mind and behavior conceived of as products of mysterious ´lan vital. e Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 8 Prehistory of Cognitive Science Ren´ Descartes (1596-1650) e ￿ ￿ Before Descartes, mind and behavior conceived of as products of mysterious ´lan vital. e Descartes proposed a mechanistic approach to sensation and action, including the role of the nervous system. Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 8 Prehistory of Cognitive Science Ren´ Descartes (1596-1650) e ￿ ￿ ￿ Before Descartes, mind and behavior conceived of as products of mysterious ´lan vital. e Descartes proposed a mechanistic approach to sensation and action, including the role of the nervous system. On the other hand, mind, which includes intelligence, thought, consciousness, etc., is immaterial and divine. Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 8 Prehistory of Cognitive Science Fast-forward 300 years... (skipping many important developments along the way...) Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 9 Prehistory of Cognitive Science Fast-forward 300 years... (skipping many important developments along the way...) Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 9 Prehistory of Cognitive Science Fast-forward 300 years... (skipping many important developments along the way...) Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 9 Prehistory of Cognitive Science Fast-forward 300 years... (skipping many important developments along the way...) Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 9 Prehistory of Cognitive Science Fast-forward 300 years... (skipping many important developments along the way...) Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 9 Prehistory of Cognitive Science Intellectual atmosphere of the 1940’s: Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 10 Prehistory of Cognitive Science Intellectual atmosphere of the 1940’s: ￿ Failure of Behaviorist psychology; Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 10 Prehistory of Cognitive Science Intellectual atmosphere of the 1940’s: ￿ Failure of Behaviorist psychology; ￿ Invention of electrical circuits, vacuum tubes, and transistors made stored-program computers a reality, building on earlier mathematical/logical work of Turing, Church, and von Neumann; Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 10 Prehistory of Cognitive Science Intellectual atmosphere of the 1940’s: ￿ Failure of Behaviorist psychology; ￿ Invention of electrical circuits, vacuum tubes, and transistors made stored-program computers a reality, building on earlier mathematical/logical work of Turing, Church, and von Neumann; ￿ Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by Oscar Morganstern and John von Neumann; Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 10 Prehistory of Cognitive Science Intellectual atmosphere of the 1940’s: ￿ Failure of Behaviorist psychology; ￿ Invention of electrical circuits, vacuum tubes, and transistors made stored-program computers a reality, building on earlier mathematical/logical work of Turing, Church, and von Neumann; ￿ Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by Oscar Morganstern and John von Neumann; ￿ Claude Shannon’s work in Information Theory; Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 10 Prehistory of Cognitive Science Intellectual atmosphere of the 1940’s: ￿ Failure of Behaviorist psychology; ￿ Invention of electrical circuits, vacuum tubes, and transistors made stored-program computers a reality, building on earlier mathematical/logical work of Turing, Church, and von Neumann; ￿ Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by Oscar Morganstern and John von Neumann; ￿ Claude Shannon’s work in Information Theory; ￿ Donald Hebb’s The Organization of Behavior; Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 10 Prehistory of Cognitive Science Intellectual atmosphere of the 1940’s: ￿ Failure of Behaviorist psychology; ￿ Invention of electrical circuits, vacuum tubes, and transistors made stored-program computers a reality, building on earlier mathematical/logical work of Turing, Church, and von Neumann; ￿ Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by Oscar Morganstern and John von Neumann; ￿ Claude Shannon’s work in Information Theory; ￿ Donald Hebb’s The Organization of Behavior; ￿ Norbert Wiener’s work in Cybernetics; ￿ ... Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 10 Prehistory of Cognitive Science With the failures of behaviorism and the successes of mathematical theories of computation and information, the application of these methods to the study of mind exploded in the 1950’s: Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 11 Prehistory of Cognitive Science With the failures of behaviorism and the successes of mathematical theories of computation and information, the application of these methods to the study of mind exploded in the 1950’s: ￿ Famous “Dartmouth Meeting” and IEEE meeting at MIT in 1956. Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 11 Prehistory of Cognitive Science With the failures of behaviorism and the successes of mathematical theories of computation and information, the application of these methods to the study of mind exploded in the 1950’s: ￿ Famous “Dartmouth Meeting” and IEEE meeting at MIT in 1956. ￿ Noam Chomsky on generative grammar Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 11 Prehistory of Cognitive Science With the failures of behaviorism and the successes of mathematical theories of computation and information, the application of these methods to the study of mind exploded in the 1950’s: ￿ Famous “Dartmouth Meeting” and IEEE meeting at MIT in 1956. ￿ Noam Chomsky on generative grammar ￿ Allen Newell and Herbert Simon’s “General Problem Solver” Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 11 Prehistory of Cognitive Science With the failures of behaviorism and the successes of mathematical theories of computation and information, the application of these methods to the study of mind exploded in the 1950’s: ￿ Famous “Dartmouth Meeting” and IEEE meeting at MIT in 1956. ￿ Noam Chomsky on generative grammar ￿ Allen Newell and Herbert Simon’s “General Problem Solver” ￿ John McCarthy on “common sense reasoning” (beginnings of AI) Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 11 Prehistory of Cognitive Science With the failures of behaviorism and the successes of mathematical theories of computation and information, the application of these methods to the study of mind exploded in the 1950’s: ￿ Famous “Dartmouth Meeting” and IEEE meeting at MIT in 1956. ￿ Noam Chomsky on generative grammar ￿ Allen Newell and Herbert Simon’s “General Problem Solver” ￿ John McCarthy on “common sense reasoning” (beginnings of AI) ￿ Frank Rosenblatt’s “Perceptron” Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 11 Prehistory of Cognitive Science ￿ By 1960, computer scientists, linguists, psychologists, philosophers, and many others were working collaboratively on central questions about cognition. Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 12 Prehistory of Cognitive Science ￿ By 1960, computer scientists, linguists, psychologists, philosophers, and many others were working collaboratively on central questions about cognition. ￿ Manifestos were written, dedicated centers were started, and so on. Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 12 Course Outline Outline of the course: Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 13 Course Outline Outline of the course: ￿ Thursday: Ken Taylor: Philosophy / Director of Symbolic Systems Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 13 Course Outline Outline of the course: ￿ Thursday: Ken Taylor: Philosophy / Director of Symbolic Systems ￿ Week 2: Jay McClelland on conscious and unconscious inference Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 13 Course Outline Outline of the course: ￿ Thursday: Ken Taylor: Philosophy / Director of Symbolic Systems ￿ Week 2: Jay McClelland on conscious and unconscious inference ￿ Week 3: Jay McClelland on neural network models of cognition and perception; Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 13 Course Outline Outline of the course: ￿ Thursday: Ken Taylor: Philosophy / Director of Symbolic Systems ￿ Week 2: Jay McClelland on conscious and unconscious inference ￿ Week 3: Jay McClelland on neural network models of cognition and perception; Concepts of rationality Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 13 Course Outline Outline of the course: ￿ Thursday: Ken Taylor: Philosophy / Director of Symbolic Systems ￿ Week 2: Jay McClelland on conscious and unconscious inference ￿ Week 3: Jay McClelland on neural network models of cognition and perception; Concepts of rationality ￿ Week 4: Thomas on Turing Machines and philosophy and foundations of computation and representation Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 13 Course Outline Outline of the course: ￿ Thursday: Ken Taylor: Philosophy / Director of Symbolic Systems ￿ Week 2: Jay McClelland on conscious and unconscious inference ￿ Week 3: Jay McClelland on neural network models of cognition and perception; Concepts of rationality ￿ Week 4: Thomas on Turing Machines and philosophy and foundations of computation and representation ￿ Week 5: Johan van Benthem on logic, information, communication, and interaction Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 13 Course Outline Outline of the course: ￿ Thursday: Ken Taylor: Philosophy / Director of Symbolic Systems ￿ Week 2: Jay McClelland on conscious and unconscious inference ￿ Week 3: Jay McClelland on neural network models of cognition and perception; Concepts of rationality ￿ Week 4: Thomas on Turing Machines and philosophy and foundations of computation and representation ￿ Week 5: Johan van Benthem on logic, information, communication, and interaction ￿ Week 6: Johan van Benthem on reasoning in game theory; Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 13 Course Outline Outline of the course: ￿ Thursday: Ken Taylor: Philosophy / Director of Symbolic Systems ￿ Week 2: Jay McClelland on conscious and unconscious inference ￿ Week 3: Jay McClelland on neural network models of cognition and perception; Concepts of rationality ￿ Week 4: Thomas on Turing Machines and philosophy and foundations of computation and representation ￿ Week 5: Johan van Benthem on logic, information, communication, and interaction ￿ Week 6: Johan van Benthem on reasoning in game theory; Samuel McClure on rationality and irrationality Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 13 Course Outline Outline of the course: ￿ Thursday: Ken Taylor: Philosophy / Director of Symbolic Systems ￿ Week 2: Jay McClelland on conscious and unconscious inference ￿ Week 3: Jay McClelland on neural network models of cognition and perception; Concepts of rationality ￿ Week 4: Thomas on Turing Machines and philosophy and foundations of computation and representation ￿ Week 5: Johan van Benthem on logic, information, communication, and interaction ￿ Week 6: Johan van Benthem on reasoning in game theory; Samuel McClure on rationality and irrationality ￿ Week 7: Ivan Sag on natural language syntax Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 13 Course Outline Outline of the course: ￿ Thursday: Ken Taylor: Philosophy / Director of Symbolic Systems ￿ Week 2: Jay McClelland on conscious and unconscious inference ￿ Week 3: Jay McClelland on neural network models of cognition and perception; Concepts of rationality ￿ Week 4: Thomas on Turing Machines and philosophy and foundations of computation and representation ￿ Week 5: Johan van Benthem on logic, information, communication, and interaction ￿ Week 6: Johan van Benthem on reasoning in game theory; Samuel McClure on rationality and irrationality ￿ Week 7: Ivan Sag on natural language syntax ￿ Week 8: Michael Frank on language acquisition; Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 13 Course Outline Outline of the course: ￿ Thursday: Ken Taylor: Philosophy / Director of Symbolic Systems ￿ Week 2: Jay McClelland on conscious and unconscious inference ￿ Week 3: Jay McClelland on neural network models of cognition and perception; Concepts of rationality ￿ Week 4: Thomas on Turing Machines and philosophy and foundations of computation and representation ￿ Week 5: Johan van Benthem on logic, information, communication, and interaction ￿ Week 6: Johan van Benthem on reasoning in game theory; Samuel McClure on rationality and irrationality ￿ Week 7: Ivan Sag on natural language syntax ￿ Week 8: Michael Frank on language acquisition; Noah Goodman on structured probabilistic models Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 13 Course Outline Outline of the course: ￿ Thursday: Ken Taylor: Philosophy / Director of Symbolic Systems ￿ Week 2: Jay McClelland on conscious and unconscious inference ￿ Week 3: Jay McClelland on neural network models of cognition and perception; Concepts of rationality ￿ Week 4: Thomas on Turing Machines and philosophy and foundations of computation and representation ￿ Week 5: Johan van Benthem on logic, information, communication, and interaction ￿ Week 6: Johan van Benthem on reasoning in game theory; Samuel McClure on rationality and irrationality ￿ Week 7: Ivan Sag on natural language syntax ￿ Week 8: Michael Frank on language acquisition; Noah Goodman on structured probabilistic models ￿ Week 9: Mehran Sahami on artificial intelligence; Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 13 Course Outline Outline of the course: ￿ Thursday: Ken Taylor: Philosophy / Director of Symbolic Systems ￿ Week 2: Jay McClelland on conscious and unconscious inference ￿ Week 3: Jay McClelland on neural network models of cognition and perception; Concepts of rationality ￿ Week 4: Thomas on Turing Machines and philosophy and foundations of computation and representation ￿ Week 5: Johan van Benthem on logic, information, communication, and interaction ￿ Week 6: Johan van Benthem on reasoning in game theory; Samuel McClure on rationality and irrationality ￿ Week 7: Ivan Sag on natural language syntax ￿ Week 8: Michael Frank on language acquisition; Noah Goodman on structured probabilistic models ￿ Week 9: Mehran Sahami on artificial intelligence; Bill MacCartney on natural language processing Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 13 Course Outline Outline of the course: ￿ Thursday: Ken Taylor: Philosophy / Director of Symbolic Systems ￿ Week 2: Jay McClelland on conscious and unconscious inference ￿ Week 3: Jay McClelland on neural network models of cognition and perception; Concepts of rationality ￿ Week 4: Thomas on Turing Machines and philosophy and foundations of computation and representation ￿ Week 5: Johan van Benthem on logic, information, communication, and interaction ￿ Week 6: Johan van Benthem on reasoning in game theory; Samuel McClure on rationality and irrationality ￿ Week 7: Ivan Sag on natural language syntax ￿ Week 8: Michael Frank on language acquisition; Noah Goodman on structured probabilistic models ￿ Week 9: Mehran Sahami on artificial intelligence; Bill MacCartney on natural language processing ￿ Week 10: Conclusions Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 13 Course Outline Administrative Matters Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 14 Course Outline Administrative Matters ￿ Syllabus: http://www.stanford.edu/class/symsys100/ Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 14 Course Outline Administrative Matters ￿ Syllabus: http://www.stanford.edu/class/symsys100/ • All readings are linked from the webpage. Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 14 Course Outline Administrative Matters ￿ Syllabus: http://www.stanford.edu/class/symsys100/ • All readings are linked from the webpage. • They must be done before the lecture under which they are listed. Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 14 Course Outline Administrative Matters ￿ ￿ Syllabus: http://www.stanford.edu/class/symsys100/ • All readings are linked from the webpage. • They must be done before the lecture under which they are listed. Sections. Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 14 Course Outline Administrative Matters ￿ ￿ Syllabus: http://www.stanford.edu/class/symsys100/ • All readings are linked from the webpage. • They must be done before the lecture under which they are listed. Sections. Times: • Monday 7:15pm-8:05pm • Thursday 5:15pm-6:05pm • Friday 10:00am-10:50am Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 14 Course Outline Administrative Matters ￿ ￿ Syllabus: http://www.stanford.edu/class/symsys100/ • All readings are linked from the webpage. • They must be done before the lecture under which they are listed. Sections. Times: • Monday 7:15pm-8:05pm • Thursday 5:15pm-6:05pm • Friday 10:00am-10:50am • Coursework will be set up for sign-up shortly. • In the mean time, please email Thomas ([email protected]) right away if you cannot make any of these section times. Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 14 Course Outline Administrative Matters ￿ ￿ Syllabus: http://www.stanford.edu/class/symsys100/ • All readings are linked from the webpage. • They must be done before the lecture under which they are listed. Sections. Times: • Monday 7:15pm-8:05pm • Thursday 5:15pm-6:05pm • Friday 10:00am-10:50am • Coursework will be set up for sign-up shortly. • In the mean time, please email Thomas ([email protected]) right away if you cannot make any of these section times. ￿ Homework • Three throughout the quarter, plus a take-home final exam • Will be due on selected Tuesdays, at the beginning of class Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 14 Course Outline Administrative Matters ￿ ￿ Syllabus: http://www.stanford.edu/class/symsys100/ • All readings are linked from the webpage. • They must be done before the lecture under which they are listed. Sections. Times: • Monday 7:15pm-8:05pm • Thursday 5:15pm-6:05pm • Friday 10:00am-10:50am • Coursework will be set up for sign-up shortly. • In the mean time, please email Thomas ([email protected]) right away if you cannot make any of these section times. ￿ ￿ Homework • Three throughout the quarter, plus a take-home final exam • Will be due on selected Tuesdays, at the beginning of class Questions? Spring 2011: Sym Sys 100, 14 ...
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This document was uploaded on 05/28/2011.

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